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Abstract

Introduction

Early detection of pregnancy is vital for appropriate reproductive management programmes to facilitate the rapid re-insemination of non-pregnant females and reduce the calving interval.

Material and Methods

A barium chloride test was compared with a commercial progesterone ELISA to detect pregnancy in non-descriptive cows and investigate if it could be applied as an alternative to ELISA in the field. Blood and urine samples were collected from 74 cows with recorded insemination dates. The progesterone ELISA and barium chloride assay were implemented to detect progesterone (P4) in blood and urine specimens, respectively. The cows' reproductive systems were examined after they were slaughtered to determine the uterus's status. Macroscopic examination of the uterus was used as a reference standard for both tests.

Results

The sensitivity rates of the P4 ELISA and barium chloride test to detect pregnant cows were 100.0% and 79.4%, and to detect the corpus luteum (CL) were 83.0% and 87.0%, respectively, their sensitivity increasing in the presence of the CL. The ELISA and barium chloride tests were 79.7% and 52.7% accurate in the diagnosis of pregnancy. The accuracy of the barium chloride test in CL detection increased to 81.0%, and that of the ELISA to 86.4%. There were no significant differences (P = 0.052) between the barium chloride assay and ELISA when they were utilised for the identification of the CL.

Conclusion

The barium chloride test can be an inexpensive and time-saving alternative to ELISA in pregnancy diagnosis when the insemination date is known.

Abstract

Introduction

Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory disease of the udder that causes important economic losses in the animal breeding and dairy product industries. Nowadays, the conventional livestock antibiotic treatments are slowly being replaced by alternative treatments. In this context, the main aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of natural products in alternative treatment of bovine mastitis.

Material and Methods

Two natural formulations with previously suggested in vitro antimicrobial effect were tested in vivo on mastitic cows. Animals with a positive diagnosis for mastitis (n = 20) were divided into three treatment groups: two groups (n = 8) were administered formulations of propolis, alcoholic extracts of Brewers Gold and Perle hops, plum lichen, common mallow, marigold, absinthe wormwood, black poplar buds, lemon balm, and essential oils of oregano, lavender, and rosemary designated R4 and R7 (differing only in the latter being more concentrated) and one group (n = 4) a conventional antibiotic mixture. In vivo efficacy of treatments was evaluated by somatic cell and standard plate counts, the treatment being considered efficacious when both parameters were under the maximum limit.

Results

R7 was effective in the most cases, being therapeutically bactericidal in six out of eight cows, while R4 gave good results in three out of eight cows, and conventional antibiotics cured one out of four.

Conclusion

These results suggest the possible therapeutic potential of these natural products in bovine mastitis.

Abstract

Introduction

Sunset Yellow FCF (SY), used frequently in ready-made foods, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical industry, may cause many health problems. This study is intended to evaluate the morphological and cellular effects of SY on the embryonic chicken immune system throughout incubation.

Material and Methods

Babcock white leghorn eggs were randomly divided into four groups. Besides a control group, there were three treatment groups which received a single injection of 200, 1,000, or 2,000 ng of SY into the air sac just before incubation. The eggs were opened on the 10th, 13th, 16th, and 21st days of incubation. Samples of the bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen were taken from embryos. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were stained with histological methods and routine histological procedures were performed.

Results

An increase in the spleen volume was determined as the hatching time of the chicks approached. The highest eosinophil ratio was found in the SY1,000 and SY2,000 groups (P < 0.05), where the most significant change was developmental retardation in the thymus. In the bursa of Fabricius, there was less lymphocyte accumulation and eosinophilic cell infiltration with increasing doses.

Conclusion

It was concluded that in ovo administered SY has undesired effects on embryonic development of the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus, and on spleen volume.

Abstract

Introduction

Due to the widespread occurrence of acrylamide in the environment, its likely carcinogen status, and the suitability of the pig model as a human analogue, the authors decided to evaluate the impact of high and low doses of this compound on the processes of erythropoiesis in swine bone marrow.

Material and Methods

The experiment was carried out on Danish Landrace pigs at the age of eight weeks and body weight about 20 kg. The animals were divided into three equal groups consisting of five pigs in each. Control animals received empty gelatin capsules (placebos). Animals from the first experimental group received a low dose of acrylamide of 0.5 μg/kg b.w./day (> 99% purity; Sigma-Aldrich, Poland), and animals from the second experimental group received a dose 10 times higher. Placebos and acrylamide capsules were administered with feed every morning for 28 days. After anaesthetisation of the animals, bone marrow from the femur was collected into tubes without an anticoagulant on days 0 and 28. After drying and staining, bone marrow smears were subjected to detailed cytological evaluation using a light microscope.

Results

This study showed that high and low doses of acrylamide affected the process of porcine erythropoiesis. The cytotoxic effect of acrylamide on this process was demonstrated in a change of the polychromatic erythroblasts/normochromatic erythroblasts ratio.

Conclusion

Both doses of acrylamide caused a decrease in the number of ortho- and polychromatic erythroblasts.

Abstract

Introduction

Avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) induce contagious and persistent diseases that affect the beaks, feathers, and immune systems of companion birds. APV causes hepatitis, ascites, hydropericardium, depression, feather disorders, abdominal distension, and potentially death. PBFDV can induce progressive beak deformity, feather dystrophy, and plumage loss. We conducted the first prevalence survey of both APV and PBFDV infections in companion birds in eastern Turkey.

Material and Methods

A total of 113 fresh dropping samples from apparently healthy companion birds were collected in a random selection. The dropping samples were analysed for PBFDV and APV by PCR. Positive samples were sequenced with the Sanger method. The sequence was confirmed through alignment and the phylogenetic tree generated through the maximum likelihood method computationally.

Results

PBFDV and APV were detected in a respective 48.7% and 23.0% of samples. Coinfection was found in 12.4% of the samples, these all being from budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus). APV and PBFDV were detected in budgerigar and cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus) samples.

Conclusion

This report provides a foundation for future studies on the influence of these viruses on the health of companion birds. These high positive rates for both pathogens emphasise that healthy M. undulatus and N. hollandicus in eastern Turkey may be prone to the emergence and spread of APV and PBFDV with subclinical potential.

Abstract

Introduction

Clinoptilolite has antiviral, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and anticancer properties due to its biological activities. In various cancer cell culture studies, it has been reported effective against tumour cells and gave positive results in treatment of various tumours in dogs. No study was found on the effects of the nanoparticulate form, nanoclinoptilolite, on cancer cells. The aim of this study was to determine its cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in canine osteosarcoma (OSA) cell culture.

Material and Methods

Doses at 50% inhibitory concentration were determined by measuring the dose- and duration-dependent cytotoxicity of nanoclinoptilolite on canine D-17 osteosarcoma cells by methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) test for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Murine caspase-3 and -7 activity and expression levels of the BAX and BCL2 genes were measured using RT-PCR to investigate the apoptotic effect.

Results

Nanoclinoptilolite decreased cell viability and induced caspase-3- and -7-mediated apoptosis in treated canine OSA cells. Furthermore, its application to canine OSA cells downregulated the expression of BCL2 and upregulated the expression of proapoptotic BAX.

Conclusion

Clinoptilolite, which was previously demonstrated to have anticancer properties, decreased cell viability effectively and rapidly and increased the apoptotic cell ratio in a novel use in nanoparticle form, exhibiting this effect by increasing the BAX/BCL2 ratio.

Abstract

Introduction

A significant threat to public health is presented by antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, selective pressure on which results from antibiotic use. Colistin is an antibiotic commonly used in veterinary medicine, but also one of last resort in human medicine. Since the 2015 discovery in China of the mcr-1 gene encoding colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae, other countries have noted its presence. This study was to find the mcr-1 gene prevalence in E. coli isolated from poultry slaughtered in Poland.

Material and Methods

Cloacal swabs were taken from December 2017 to October 2018 from broiler chickens in three regions. The samples (n = 158) were grouped as flocks treated with colistin sulphate (n = 87) and those not treated (n = 71). Resistance to antimicrobials commonly used in poultry was evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration. The presence of the mcr-1 gene was confirmed by PCR.

Results

Isolates containing the mcr-1 gene were yielded by 11.27% of the samples from not treated flocks and 19.54% of those from treated flocks, but no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of the gene was seen between the groups.

Conclusion

The results clearly preclude intensification of selective pressure for colistin resistance due to colistin sulphate treatment because they show that the avian gastrointestinal tract was already inhabited by colistin-resistant E. coli by the time the chickens came to the poultry house.

Abstract

Introduction

White sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) disease is caused by a virus of the eponymous family and is mostly triggered by stressful environmental conditions, i.e. high rearing density, excessive handling, or temporary loss of water. The aim of this study was to develop the most effective diagnostic method for quick and efficient confirmation or exclusion of the presence of WSIV.

Material and Methods

A total of 42 samples (spleen, gills, intestine, skin, kidney, and brain) were collected from eight sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii and A. oxyrinchus) aged ≤5+ farmed or caught between 2010 and 2014 in open waters (Dąbie Lake and Szczecin Lagoon). They were tested for WSIV presence using conventional PCR, qPCR, and in situ hybridisation (ISH).

Results

In gross examination, all fish appeared to be healthy. Neither species showed clinical signs typical of WSIV infection. In the majority of cases, fragments of iridoviral DNA were found using molecular methods in the kidneys, and also in the liver, gills, and skin. The detection rate using ISH was 47.37% and most commonly the brain and kidney tissues were positive. The most efficient of the methods used was real-time PCR, with 100% effectiveness in detection of WSIV DNA.

Conclusion

The study demonstrates the capabilities for WSIV diagnosis available to sturgeon farmers and water administrators, indicating useful methods of adequate sensitivity as well as organs to sample in order to achieve the highest probability of viral detection.

Abstract

Introduction

The article describes the occurrence and phylogenetic relationship of Salmonella isolates found in subcutaneous abscesses of leopard geckos. The aim of the study was to determine the cause of the abscesses and to characterise isolated Salmonella strains.

Material and Methods

Samples of abscesses from five animals and internal organs (lungs, liver, and gut) of three of them were tested for Salmonella according to the PN-EN ISO 6579:2002/A1:2007 standard. The antimicrobial resistance was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentrations and the genetic similarity of the isolates was assessed with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results

In total, seventeen Salmonella isolates belonging to five different serovars were found to be susceptible to all tested antimicrobials except streptomycin. The serovars were S. Hadar, S. Fluntern, S. Tennessee, S. enterica subsp. salamae 55:k:z39, and S. Kentucky. Up to three serovars from different organs were isolated from the same individual. In two geckos, Salmonella were detected in the lungs. In three serovars, XbaI-PFGE typing revealed indistinguishable isolates from organs and abscesses.

Conclusion

Multiple Salmonella serovars might be involved in abscess formation and infections. The occurrence of the same PFGE profiles of the isolates may testify to the role of opportunistic organisms in causing infection.

Abstract

Introduction

This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.

Material and Methods

Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.

Results

Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.

Conclusion

The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.