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Abstract

Background

Young ballet dancers are at risk of health issues associated with altered nutritional status and of relative energy deficiency in sport compared to the general population.

Aim

To evaluate the nutritional status and body composition in ballet dancers.

Materials and methods

The study group consisted of 40 young ballet dancers (mean age 19.97 years). Height and weight were measured and body mass index was calculated in all subjects (mean BMI value 19.79 kg/m2, SD: 2.051). Body composition was estimated using the bioelectrical impedance method.

Results

The dancers’ fat-free mass was 47.33 kg (SD: 5.064) and, on the average, body fat represented the 15.92% (SD: 16.91) of their body weight.

Conclusions

Ballet dancers, who usually show significantly lower BMI values compared to the general population, also displayed body fat values under the suggested range. Some screening for altered nutritional status should be performed. In addition, education programs should be recommended in young ballet dancers, in order to inform about energy and nutrition requirements for health and training and to prevent malnutrition-related problems.

Abstract

There is a strong need for a non-invasive measurement technique that is capable of accurately identifying the physiological condition change or heterogeneity of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) by localizing the abnormalities within the compartment. This paper aims to investigate the feasibility of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) to assess the interstitial fluid in subcutaneous adipose tissue as an enhancement method of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS). Here, we demonstrate the preliminary result of EIT with a wearable 16 electrodes sensor. The image-based reference EIT with fat weighted threshold method is proposed. In order to evaluate the performance of our novel method, a physiological swelling experiment is conducted, and Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (MFBIA) is also applied as a comparison with EIT results. The experimental results showed that the proposed method was able to distinguish the physiological swelling condition and effectively to remove the unexpected background noise. Furthermore, the conductivity variation in the subcutaneous layer had a good correlation with extracellular water volume change from MFBIA data; the correlation coefficient R2 = 0.927. It is concluded that the proposed method provides a significant prospect for SAT assessment.

Abstract

Apnea is one of the deadliest diseases that can be prevented and cured if it is detected in time. In this paper, we propose a precise method for early detection of the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) disease using the latest feature selection and extraction methods. The feature selection in this paper is based on the Dual tree complex wavelet (DT-CWT) coefficients of the ECG signals of several patients. The feature extraction from these coefficients is done using frequency and time techniques. The Feature selection is done using the spectral regression discriminant analysis (SRDA) algorithm and the classification is performed using the hybrid RBF network. A hybrid RBF neural network is introduced in this paper for detecting apnea that is much less computationally demanding than the previously presented SVM networks. Our findings showed a 3 percent improvement in the detection and at least a 30 percent reduction in the computational complexity in comparison with methods that have been presented recently.

Abstract

Nonhuman primates are often used in biomedical research and to investigate physiologic processes that occur in man. Impedance plethysmography was used to measure calf, thigh, pelvic, abdominal, and thoracic volume changes in ten Rhesus and eight squirrel monkeys during five-minute exposures to HUT and HDT at angles of 5, 10, and 20 degrees. Calf, rump and tail measurements were made in three squirrel monkeys at 10 and 20 degrees of HUT and HDT. Fluid volume changes in all segments of the Rhesus monkeys were found to change during HUT an HDT in direct relation to the angle of tilt used. However, the volume changes that occurred in the squirrel monkeys were found to be quite different. Their calf, thigh, and pelvic segments lost volume during both HUT and HDT while their abdominal and thoracic segments responded similarly to those of the Rhesus monkeys. These results and those of the calf/tail measurements of the squirrel monkeys suggest that they may utilize their tails as a compensatory reservoir during postural changes and therefore, may not be an appropriate animal model for man under some orthostatic test conditions.

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of leachates from municipal landfill co-treatment with the dairy wastewater in an aerobic membrane bioreactor. It was working in MSBR (sequential membrane bioreactor) systems twice daily and was equipped with the immersed membrane module installed inside what enabled its back-washing performance. The system was working. The concentration of activated sludge in the membrane bioreactor was equal to 4.0 g/dm3. However, the sludge load was at the level of 0.06 g COD/(g d.m. · d). The oxygen concentration was at the level of 3.0 g O2/m3. The share of leachate was varied in a range of 5 to 15 % vol. The evaluation of the effectiveness of the treatment process was based on the change of parameters characterizing the crude sewage and treated sewage. All analysis was carried out according to standards. Following parameters were determined: COD, BOD5, TOC and concentrations of phosphate phosphorus, total nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen. Chemical analysis is often not enough to define the degree of wastewater treatment. It was used toxicological research to determine the effect on the environment. Toxicity of wastewaters was measured using biotests with Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna. The results revealed that the volume of leachate in the treated mixture should not exceed 10 % vol. The following conclusion can be drawn from the present research - co-treated wastewater was not toxic. Landfill co-treatment with the dairy wastewater impacts on the effectiveness of biological wastewater treatment. Leachate includes substances which have low susceptibility to biodegradation; on the other hand, dairy wastewaters provide a lot of organic compounds, which can help to treat them.

Abstract

Pretreatment is an essential step in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products. It aims to increase the biomass susceptibility to enzymatic saccharification to generate fermentable monosaccharides. In this study, the efficiency of 2 % potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution used as a pretreating agent for various lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn straw, corncob, and poplar wood, was evaluated. The influence of the pretreatment time, which varied from 0.5 to 24 h at 50 °C, on the alteration of biomass composition was investigated, as well as the enzymatic digestibility. Finally, the overall sugar yields were determined. For corncob, the yield on average amounted to 453.9 ±18.9 mg·g−1 raw (untreated) biomass, regardless of the pretreatment time. The overall sugar yield for both the corn straw and poplar wood biomass increased with increased pretreatment time and ranged from 333.0 to 438.4 mg·g−1 raw biomass and from 123.2 to 215.7 mg·g−1 raw biomass, respectively. Based on the results obtained, the most appropriate pretreatment times for all types of biomass were proposed. The results of this study may be useful for the development of lignocellulosic biomass processing technology.

Abstract

In the present study, the creeks and lakes located at the western shore of Admiralty Bay were analysed. The impact of various sources of water supply was considered, based on the parameters of temperature, pH and specific electrolytic conductivity (SEC 25). All measurements were conducted during a field campaign in January–February 2017. A multivariate dataset was also created and a biplot of SEC 25 and pH of the investigated waters was performed. The average temperatures of the investigated waters were 0.10-8.10 °C. The pH values indicate that most of the water environments of the analysed area are slightly acidic to alkaline (5.26–8.50) with two exceptions: Siodlo II Creek (9.26) and Petrified Forest Creek (8.95), which are characterised by greater alkalinity. At the measurement points closest to the Baranowski Glacier and Ecology Glacier, SEC 25 values were the lowest (26.8–61.1 µS·cm–1), while the remaining values ranged from 79.0 to 382 µS·cm–1 for the whole studied area. Based on the results it is concluded that the periodic intensive inflow of ablation waters, combined with morphological changes in the glacier front, causes a significant variability in the outflow network, creating the conditions for changes in basic physicochemical parameters. Moreover, it is observed that local depressions in the terrain form sedimentation traps in which, alongside fine-grained deposits, compounds can accumulate that originate from in situ sedimentation and that are also associated with surface runoff from the melting of snow cover, buried ice and permafrost.

Abstract

Using survey, we discuss how climate and environmental issues awareness affects residents’ low carbon use behaviour. The results are following. Firstly, climate and environmental issues awareness positively affects residents’ low carbon use. Secondly, perceived effectiveness has mediate effect on the relationship between climate and environmental issues awareness and low carbon use behaviour partly. Thirdly, perceived value has negative moderate effect on the relationship between climate and environmental issues awareness and low carbon use conduct. The results of this study show that when residents feel higher perceived value about their low carbon consumption, they will engage in low carbon use even with lower climate and environmental issues awareness. It tells us that we should treat the residents differently with classification when advocate low carbon use. Specifically, there are some product and service in which consumers can gain high perceived value if the residents frugally use them with high efficiency. And we need to make effort to the following things: we improve the perceived value with hard working, and on the other hand, we make enough effort to enable the residents to deeply experience the perceived value via multiple means.

Abstract

The possibility of applying a colloidal solution of nanosilver in the closed circuit of pool water treatment as a complementary disinfectant with chlorine compounds was presented. The applied nanosilver solution is characterized, by hygienic certificate, as having a very high biocidal effect. Samples of pool water for the control were taken from 5 points of a pool circuit. The safety of the water was appraised by comparing the bacteriological and physicochemical test results with the admissible values specified by hygienic requirements. The results show that nanosilver solution can be successfully applied for precoating the filter bed and supporting the disinfection system. Special attention was paid to the bacteriological purity and stability of the disinfectant concentration. The influence of concentration of colloidal nanosilver (0-25 mg/dm3) on bacterial bioluminescence, crustacean mortality and macroscopic effect of root growth and seed germination of selected plants was analysed. The results obtained were related to the current knowledge on the impact of nanoparticles on indicator organisms. It was found that due to many still unknown mechanisms of interaction and transformation of nanoparticles in living organisms, further study of this issue is necessary.