The present study shows the results of a 2D local seismic response (LSR) analysis, simulated for a geomechanical model consisting of a layered carbonate rock mass with hypogean karst caves and a structural–lithostratigraphic complex setting, in an area within the Municipality of Turi (Apulia, Italy). In this case study a Distinct Element Code (DEM) code (UDEC) was used for the LSR simulations conducted on a model both in the absence and in the presence of two overlapping karst caves. The preliminary stress–strain model analysis show some tensile yielding points clustered on the roof of the upper karst cave, already in static conditions, and the phenomenon becomes even more noticeable in dynamic conditions. This is perfectly in agreement with the real occurrence of a sinkhole that brought to the light the underlying karst cave, in the case study area, in the recent past.
The amplification/deamplification factor (FA) was calculated as the ratio of the top value to the bottom value in the model, both of the max X-acceleration and of the spectral Fourier amplitude in three different ranges of frequencies, in order to estimate the effects of LSR on the X-component of the seismic input. According to the previous studies, the results obtained show a generalised deamplification of the seismic ground motion at the top of the model, both without and with underground karst caves, caused by the presence of the upper karst cave and by the seismic energy absorption because of layers’ discontinuity.
In a piled-raft foundation, the interaction between structural elements and soil continuum can be simulated very precisely by numerical modeling. In the present study, 3D finite element model has been used to examine the settlement, load-sharing, bending moment, and shear force behavior of piled-raft foundation on different soil profiles for different load configurations and pile-raft configurations (PRCs). The model incorporates the pile-to-soil and raft-to-soil interactions by means of interface elements. The effect of parameters such as pile spacing and raft thickness are also studied. For any soil profile, larger pile spacing is observed to be more efficient in reducing the average settlement and enhancing the load-sharing coefficient. The smaller pile spacing is observed to be efficient in reducing the differential settlement. For any soil profile, the behavior of piled-raft foundation is significantly affected by the PRCs and load configurations. Furthermore, the raft thickness has significant effect on settlement, bending moment, and shears force. Thus, the results of the present study can be used as guidelines for analyzing and designing large piled-raft foundation.
The results of studies of the crushing process in a double toggle jaw crusher are presented. This process was carried out on six sets of crushing plates. The first three of them are used in industrial crushers – plates with a flat working surface and a triangular profile (in this work, under consideration were profiles with teeth angle γ = 90°). The fourth and fifth type refer to plates with a variable pitch t and teeth height with a triangular shape of the teeth. In the sixth solution, plates with variable pitch and width of the wedged teeth are proposed.
The results of the basic process parameters are shown, that is, average degree of fineness n, technical performance Wt, crushing energy L and crushing force F, sieve analysis of crushing product. The obtained results are the basis for the assessment of the suitability of various types of plates, especially plates with a new profile, which have an altered shape in comparison with the plates used in crushers so far.
The crushing tests were carried out with the same dimension of outlet slot er = 24 mm, close to the pitch size for plates with triangular profile. Tests were performed on the “Mucharz” sandstone. Samples from a series of blocks of different size and geometric shape were prepared. This work also presents feed mass influence on crushing process efficiency.
The plates with variable pitch and width of teeth are beneficial because of lower crushing force and energy.
Water infiltration through coal stocks exposed to weather elements represents a key issue for many old mining sites and coal-fired power plants from the environmental point of view, considering the negative impact on human health of the deriving groundwater, soil and air pollution. Within this context, the paper investigates the hydraulic behaviour of a self-weight compacted unsaturated coal mass and its impact on the numerical prediction of infiltration induced by rainfall events. In particular, the work focuses on the experimental investigation carried out at different representative scales, from the grain scale to physical modelling. The material, when starting from uncompacted conditions, seems to be characterized by metastable structure, which tends to collapse under imbibition. In addition, direct numerical predictions of the seepage regime through a partially saturated coal mass have been performed. As the compaction of the coal stock induced by dozers has not been taken into account, the numerical simulations represent a conservative approach for the assessment of chemical pollution hazard associated to water infiltration into a real stockpile under operational conditions.
The problem of numerical simulation of the material interface response under monotonic and cyclic loading is of fundamental scientific and engineering importance. In fact, such interfaces occur in most engineering and geotechnical structures. The present work is devoted to the deformational response analysis of contact interfaces under monotonic and cyclic loads. The class of materials includes rock and structural joints, soil structure interfaces, masonry and cementitious joints, localized shear bands and so on.
The aim of the proposed model is to simulate the cyclic shear test under constant normal load. The associated dilatancy effect is associated with the configurational effects of asperity interaction or dilatancy of wear debris layer. The large primary asperities are assumed as responsible for interfacial dilation and small size asperities as governing frictional sliding and hysteresis response. The elliptic loading yield function is assumed to translate and rotate during progressive or reverse loading events. The model formulation is discussed and confronted with experimental data.
This paper focuses on the setup of axial bearing capacity of open ended tubular steel piles that are used for offshore foundation systems such as those of wind turbines. A comparative evaluation of the most commonly used models for setup prediction shows an upper estimate bound and a lower estimate bound, which correspond approximately to a setup rate of 60% increase per log cycle of time and 20% increase per log cycle of time, respectively. This finding is validated with the results of case histories reported in literature, which show that the setup values of most case histories considered lie in the best estimate zone between the upper estimate zone and the lower estimate zone. The analysis results show a minimum setup factor of approximately 1.5 for 100 days following end of driving of open-ended tubular steel pile driven in sand.
This paper presents a laboratory study of the combined effect of the water content and fines content on the mechanical behaviour of Chlef sand in a medium dense state (RD = 65%) and dense state (RD = 80%). Several mechanical parameters were evaluated such as shear strength, cohesion and friction angle at different water content w = 0, 1, 2 and 3% and different fines content Fc = 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%. The test results showed that the shear strength of Chlef sand decrease with the increase fines content Fc = 0 to 40%, our tests result also showed that the water content has a significant influence on the shear strength which decreases with the increase in the water content w = 0 to 3%. The fines content and the water content have a significant influence on the mechanical parameters c and φ. Cohesion increases with the percentage of fines and decreases with the increase of the water content while the friction angle decreases with the increase the fines content and the water content.
In this article, the computational methodology of the catenary–train–track system vibration analysis is presented and used to estimate the influence of vehicle body vibrations on the pantograph–catenary dynamic interaction. This issue is rarely referred in the literature, although any perturbations appearing at the pantograph–catenary interface are of great importance for high-speed railways. Vehicle body vibrations considered in this article are induced by the passage of train through the track stiffness discontinuity, being a frequent cause of significant dynamic effects. First, the most important assumptions of the computational model are presented, including the general idea of decomposing catenary–train–track dynamic system into two main subsystems and the concept of one-way coupling between them. Then, the pantograph base vibrations calculated for two train speeds (60 m/s, 100 m/s) and two cases of track discontinuity (a sudden increase and a sudden decrease in the stiffness of track substrate) are analyzed. Two cases of the railway vehicle suspension are considered – a typical two-stage suspension and a primary suspension alone. To evaluate catenary–pantograph dynamic interaction, the dynamic uplift of the contact wire at steady arm and the pantograph contact force is computed. It is demonstrated that an efficiency of the two-stage suspension grows with the train speed; hence, such vehicle suspension effectively suppresses strong sudden shocks of vehicle body, appearing while the train passes through the track stiffness discontinuity at a high speed. In a hypothetical case when the one-stage vehicle suspension is used, the pantograph base vibrations may increase the number of contact loss events at the catenary–pantograph interface.
The article presents problem of non-uniform foundation of structures in weak wet subsoil. The problem is illustrated with the case study of two-chamber-reinforced concrete water tank constructed in 1920s of 20th century, which cracked during construction. Under part of foundation, where the peat was found, the concrete piles were introduced.
The results of five-year measurement of crack widths with crack gauges and geodesic measurements of vertical displacement of tank were presented. These results indicate that the tank is not stable and part of broken tank supported on piles is movable.
On the basis of the presented data, the general conclusions concerning the non-uniform founding of tanks are formulated.
Water seepage is one of the most important features of embankment dams. To prevent and reduce seepage, it is necessary to seal the dam. Plastic concrete cutoff walls are one of the most efficient methods in waterproofing the foundation of embankment dams on permeable alluvial substrates. Sufficient resistance to loads, low permeability to maintain dam sealing, high ductility compatible with the foundation and deformation under load without cracking are the main requirements in plastic concrete cutoff walls. In this paper, the construction and implementation of the cutoff wall of Karkheh Dam, which is one the world’s largest water sealing projects, was studied. In addition, a numerical model using Seep-3D software was developed to evaluate the efficiency of the cut-off wall to decrease the seepage over the dam’s foundation. The numerical results validated by instrumentation statistics resulted from 17-years dam operation. According to the results, after the drainage of the reservoir, the cutoff wall optimally reduced the hydraulic gradient by 0.08 from 2.35 and the water leakage by 3.1 m/s from 18.3 m/s.