The predominant culture of Sabah consists of a motley of cultures, each of which has been brought in by the different ethnic groups from their indigenous cultures. The total population of Sabah consists of more than thirty different ethnicities and races, and the number of languages and dialects go over eighty. Hence the cultural tourism in Sabah would have varied criteria that can be looked into. The aim of this paper is to use the scoring model in operational research to rank these decision criteria according to highest scores. The preferability of tourist visiting these hot spots is done by ranking their preferability based on a weightage. Highly scored attraction factors would attract more tourists to visit cultural spots in Kota Kinabalu. Therefore, these would help operational managers in the tourism industry to focus on promoting and marketing this sector.
This study presents the estimated remaining quantity of overburden material (topsoil, completely to highly weathered rock) and remaining geological reserve at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching after the quarry has been operated for years. Desktop study including literature search was carried out prior field investigation. Three boreholes together with latest topographical and detail survey was conducted to obtain the latest data at Sibanyis Quarry, Kuching. Based on this Geological Reconciliation Study, the estimated total remaining geological rock reserve is 40,022,767 metric tons, and the weathered rock and top soil are 2,159,688 BCM and 1,247,697 BCM respectively. The assumptions that are taken into consideration are top soil thickness of 11m, weathered rock thickness of 15m and rock density of 2.64 mt/m3.
Integrated well dataset and seismics delineated the PGS field onshore Niger Delta for reservoir identification. Gamma ray, resistivity, Neutron and density Logs identified four lithologies: sandstone, shaly sandstone, shaly sand and shale. They consist of sand-shale intercalation with the traces of shale sometimes found within the sand Formation. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs showed varying degree of lower density, low gamma ray, high porosity and resistivity response with prolific hydrocarbon reservoir G due to its shale volume and the clean sand mapped as a probable hydrocarbon reservoir. 3D seismic data located both seismic scale and sub-seismic scale structural and stratigraphic elements. Risk reduction in dry hole drilling due fault missing in conventional seismic attribute analysis and interpretation, have to be integrated into the Oil companies standard practice.
The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.
The present research describes a method of combining geostatistical analysis with geophysical inversion of electrical resistivity data conducted in Pakhli Plain, northwestern Himalayas, Pakistan. The raw data has been collected from the Technical Report VII-I on Ground Water Resources in Pakhli Plain, Mansehra District. Subsequently, the data has been deciphered and broadened from one dimensional resistivity data into a 2D model that can be entirely visualized and deduced in a spatial sense. Interpretation and calibration of the electrical resistivity curves with the lithologies and geophysical logs of boreholes suggests possible identification of distinctive sedimentary accumulations occurring within the Pakhli Plain. The 2D and 3D gridding and visualization is imperative to map the extents of the alluvial deposits within the Pakhli Plain formed during the periods of extreme tectonic activity. The coarser sediments are associated with lower levels of resistivity as measured in the electrical surveys, whereas the finer sediments exhibit characteristically lower resistivities. Therefore, the zones of low and high resistivity values are indicative of particles associated with coarser and finer sediments, respectively. It has been mentioned that the Pakhli Plain has remained a lacustrine zone during some time in the geological past as indicated by low resistivities representing finer sediments in the middle of the Plain. Consequently, the overall transmissivity of the sediments is low, which imply poor conditions for commercial groundwater production in the Pakhli Plain. Moreover, high resistivity zones of coarse material could be further investigated for groundwater potential areas. In particular, the prime objectives of the present study include 3D modeling of underground resistivity and its exploration in terms of groundwater potential on the basis of distribution of low resistivity zones.
The IGRF filtered Aeromagnetic data over Iwo, southwestern part of Nigeria within the basement complex was subjected to reduction to magnetic equator filtering, residual filtering, upward and downward continuation filtering, automatic gain control filtering, tilt angle derivative, second vertical derivative, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. This reveals the geologic information such as structural trend. Based on the result of the total magnetic intensity map, reduction to equator map, analytical signal map and residual magnetic intensity map, it can be concluded that; The rocks in the study area have a trend of approximately northeast-southwest direction as seen on the upward continuation map. Most of the delineated lineaments found within the study area strike mostly in NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE with minor trend of E-W and ENE-WSW direction. Structural lineament orientation suggested that they were products of Pan-African orogeny (NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends) and pre-Pan-African orogeny (NNW-SSE and E-W trend). The interpretation of the aeromagnetic dataset gave an insight into the regional geology and structural trends of the area.
Results of research of the identification of flooding as a result of groundwater table fluctuations on the example of the valley of the River Vistula, with the use of multi-spectral Sentinel-2 images from the years 2017–2018 are presented. An analysis of indexes of water use, calculated on the basis of green, red and shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands, for extraction of water objects and flooded areas was carried out. Based on the analyses conducted, a mapping method was developed, using three water indexes (MNDWI Modified Normalised Difference Water Index, NDTI Normalised Difference Index and NDPI Normalised Difference Pond Index). Results show that the 10 metre false colour composite RNDTIGNDPIBMNDWI obtained significantly improved submerged extractions more than did individual water indexes. Moreover, the 10-m-images of MNDWI and NDPI, obtained by the sharpening High Pass Filter (HPF), may represent more detailed spatial information on floods than the 20-m-MNDWI and NDPI, obtained from original images.
The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of the Scandinavian Caledonides is an archetypal terrain for high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. However, the vast majority of lithologies occurring there bear no, or only limited, evidence for HP or UHP metamorphism. The studied Midsund HP granulite occurs on the island of Otrøy, a locality known for the occurrence of the UHP eclogites and mantle-derived, garnet-bearing ultramafics. The Midsund granulite consists of plagioclase, garnet, clinopyroxene, relict phengitic mica, biotite, rutile, quartz, amphibole, ilmenite and titanite, among the most prominent phases. Applied thermodynamic modelling in the NCKFMMnASHT system resulted in a pressure–temperature (P–T) pseudosection that provides an intersection of compositional isopleths of XMg (Mg/Mg+Fe) in garnet, albite in plagioclase and XNa (Na/Na+Ca) in clinopyroxene in the stability field of melt + plagioclase + garnet + clinopyroxene + amphibole + ilmenite. The obtained thermodynamic model yields P–T conditions of 1.32–1.45 GPa and 875–970 °C. The relatively high P–T recorded by the Midsund granulite may be explained as an effect of equilibration due to exhumation from HP (presumably UHP) conditions followed by a period of stagnation under HT at lower-to-medium crustal level. The latter seems to be a more widespread phenomenon in the WGR than previously thought and may well explain commonly calculated pressure contrasts between neighboring lithologies in the WGR and other HP–UHP terranes worldwide.
The aim of the present study is to monitor changes in the location of the groundwater table in the catchment area of the River Gwda within the Quaternary and Neogene water-bearing level over a 35-year period, between 1981 and 2015. In addition, on account of very diverse total annual precipitation levels in particular parts of the catchment, attempts were made to determine the influence of precipitation on the location of the groundwater table. By correlating groundwater level and meteorological parameters (precipitation), it was discovered that precipitation in the previous year made the largest impact on the groundwater table. Moreover, low precipitation totals in the southern part of the catchment are not discernible in groundwater table fluctuations, which is linked to the location of the observation well within the drainage zone as well as to water ascension from deeper aquifers.