This paper presents experimental research on expanded clay aggregate concrete. The aim of the investigations was to determine if the pre-wetting of expanded clay aggregate has an effect on the freeze-thaw durability of the expanded clay aggregate concrete. Five concrete series based on the same concrete mix design were made and tested. The degree of pre-wetting of the aggregate was varied: dry aggregate was used in the first series, aggregate with a moisture content of 10% was used in series IA and IB and aggregate with a moisture content of 25% was used in series IIA and IIB. Also the approach to the production process was varied: in series A the water contained in the aggregate was taken into account in the global water-cement ratio (consequently a reduced amount of water was added to the mix), whereas in series B the nominal amount of water was added to the mix (as in the case of dry aggregate). The freeze-thaw resistance criterion was based on the assessment of the decrease of compressive strength and increase in weight loss after exposure to freeze-thaw cycles. The expanded clay aggregate concrete's strength and mass decrements caused by freeze-thaw cycling were used as the measure of its freeze-thaw resistance. The investigations have shown that the pre-wetting of expanded clay aggregate has an effect on the freeze-thaw durability of the expanded clay aggregate concrete. The differences of concrete compressive strength decrease related to freeze-thaw durability may be 2 to 5 times greater when inadequate method of calculating mixing water for concrete is used.
This paper deals with elementary geotechnical tests: triaxial and direct shear of cohesionless sand using the discrete element method (DEM). The capabilities of the numerical DEM code are shown, with a special focus on the early phenomena appearance in localization zones. The numerical tests were performed in 3D conditions with spherical grains. Contact moments law was introduced due to simulate not perfectly round sand grains. The influence of different physical parameters was studied, e.g. initial density or confining pressure. The sieve curve corresponded to the Karlsruhe sand ; however, in some tests, it was linearly scaled. Special attention was laid on the behaviour of the sand grains inside localization, e.g. rotation, porosity, fluctuations, etc. and forces redistribution. Emphasis was given on the pre-failure regime and early localization predictors.
One of the most perspective development directions of the aircraft engine is the application of adaptive digital automatic control systems (ACS). The significant element of the adaptation is the correction of mathematical models of both engine and its executive, measuring devices. These models help to solve tasks of control and are a combination of static models and dynamic models, as static models describe relations between parameters at steady-state modes, and dynamic ones characterize deviations of the parameters from static values.
The work considers problems of the models’ correction using parametric identification methods. It is shown that the main problem of the precise engine simulation is the correction of the static model. A robust procedure that is based on a wide application of a priori information about performances of the engine and its measuring system is proposed for this purpose. One of many variants of this procedure provides an application of the non-linear thermodynamic model of the working process and estimation of individual corrections to the engine components’ characteristics with further substitution of the thermodynamic model by approximating on-board static model. Physically grounded estimates are obtained based on a priori information setting about the estimated parameters and engine performances, using fuzzy sets.
Executive devices (actuators) and the most inertial temperature sensors require correction to their dynamic models. Researches showed, in case that the data for identification are collected during regular operation of ACS, the estimates of dynamic model parameters can be strongly correlated that reasons inadmissible errors.
The reason is inside the substantial limitations on transients’ intensity that contain regular algorithms of acceleration/deceleration control. Therefore, test actions on the engine are required. Their character and minimum composition are determined using the derived relations between errors in model coefficients, measurement process, and control action parameters.
Annoyance is the most prevalent community response to environmental noise. Observational and experimental lab studies have shown that exposure to environmental noise leads to annoyance, sleep disturbance, daytime sleepiness, increased heart rate and increased blood pressure. However, previous literature is preliminary based on controlled settings or experimental design, raising the question of the generalizability and applicability in daily life scenarios. This study aimed to investigate two main research questions. First, what is the relationship between short-term annoyance and different amounts of nocturnal aircraft noise exposure in daily life? Second, what is the relationship between physiological parameters, including heart rate, number of awakenings, sleep efficiency, sleep duration and different amounts of nocturnal aircraft noise exposure in daily life? This study also aimed to explore the suitability of non-invasive commercially available activity trackers to measure physiological metrics in a scientific way. During this field study, participants were wearing Fitbit Charge 3 activity trackers recording heart rate and different sleep-derived metrics (e.g. deep sleep duration, sleep efficiency and awakenings). The used activity trackers were readily available, non-intrusive, relatively cheap and easy to use by the participants. Simultaneously, a logbook was used by the participants to track the subjective perception and situational context of air traffic noise exposure. The noise levels corresponding to the exposure of air traffic of each participant were calculated based on the location of the participant and the corresponding radar track using an aircraft noise monitoring system.
We hypothesize that a higher amount of exposure to aircraft noise in real life will be associated with increased annoyance, increased rest heartrate, higher number of awakenings, decreased sleep efficiency and decreased deep sleep duration.
Preliminary results on the interactions between aircraft noise exposure, perceived annoyance and physiological metrics suggest increased nocturnal aircraft noise exposure seems to negatively affect sleep efficiency and deep sleep duration.
The article presents the results of calculations applied to compare flight envelopes of varying helicopter configurations. Performance of conventional helicopter with the main and tail rotors, in the case of compound helicopter, can be improved by applying wings and pusher propellers which generate an additional lift and horizontal thrust. The simplified model of a helicopter structure, consisting of a stiff fuselage and the main rotor treated as a stiff disk, is applied for evaluation of the rotorcraft performance and the required range of control system deflections. The more detailed model of deformable main rotor blades, applying the Galerkin method, is used to calculate rotor loads and blade deformations in defined flight states. The calculations of simulated flight states are performed considering data of a hypothetical medium class helicopter with the take-off mass of 6,000kg. In the case of both of the helicopter configurations, the articulated main rotor hub is taken under consideration. According to the Galerkin method, the elastic blade model allows to compute blade deformations as a combination of the blade bending and torsional eigen modes. Introduction of additional wing and pusher propellers allows to increase the range of operational speed over 300 km/h. Results of the simulation are presented as time-runs of rotor loads and blade deformations and in a form of disk distribution plots of rotor parameters. The simulation method can be useful in defining requirements for a high speed rotorcraft.
The idea of using the phenomenon of rotating detonation to propulsion has its roots in fifties of the last century in works of Adamson et al. and Nicholls et al. at the University of Michigan. The idea was recently reinvented and experimental research and numerical simulations on the Rotating Detonation Engine (RDE) are carried in numerous institutions worldwide, in Poland at Warsaw University of Technology (WUT) since 2004. Over the period 2010-2014 WUT and Institute of Aviation (IOA) jointly implemented the project under the Innovative Economy Operational Programme entitled ‘Turbine engine with detonation combustion chamber’. The goal of the project was to replace the combustion chamber of turboshaft engine GTD-350 with the annular detonation chamber.
This paper is focused on investigation of the influence of a geometry and flow conditions on the structure and propagation stability of the rotating detonation wave. Presented results are in majority an outcome of the aforementioned programme, in particular authors’ works on the development of the in-house code REFLOPS USG and its application to simulation of the rotating detonation propagation in the RDE.
Detonation is a promising combustion mode to improve engine performance, increase combustion efficiency, reduce emissions, and enhance thermal cycle efficiency. Over the last decade, significant progress has been made towards the applications of detonation mode in engines, such as standing detonation engine (SDE), Pulse detonation engine (PDE) and rotating detonation engine (RDE), and the understanding of the fundamental chemistry and physics processes in detonation engines via experimental and numerical studies. This article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the progress in the knowledge of rotating detonation engine from the different countries. New observations of injection, ignition, and geometry of combustor, pressure feedback, and combustion modes of RDE have been reported. These findings and advances have provided new opportunities in the development of rotating detonation for practical applications. Finally, we point out the current gaps in knowledge to indicate which areas future research should be directed at.
Among of modern papers devoted to numerical modeling of rotated waves the greater part of papers are based on assumption that such wave propagates with velocity equals to the Chapman-Jouguet velocity of ideal detonation model with plane front. But the experimental velocities of rotated detonation waves, as a rule, are less (and even much less) the velocity of ideal Chapman-Jouguet detonation. Such regimes are named as low-velocity detonation or quasi-detonation and its characteristics are practically not investigated carefully. Moreover, similar to the spinning detonation, the strong connection of velocity of rotated transverse waves with the acoustic waves of reaction products was observed. So the new model with an allowance for the losses of impulse and energy must be used at numerical modeling of RDE and new experimental investigations of regimes with understated velocity must be carried out. In given paper some important aspects of rotated detonation waves and new experimental results are analyzed: the multifront system of rotated waves; correlation of rotation velocity of waves with acoustic characteristics of reaction products; streak-records trajectory of rotated waves on moving film; pressure and temperature profiles of rotating waves; velocity deficit and energy-release.