Chatter is a self-excited vibration that depends on several parameters such as the dynamic characteristics of a machine tool structure, the material of work piece, the material removal rate, and the geometry of tools. Chatter has an undesirable effect on dimensional accuracy, smoothness of work piece surface, lifetime of tools and machine tools. Thus, it is useful to understand this phenomenon in order to improve the economic aspect of machining. In the present article, firstly, the theoretical study and mathematical modeling of chatter in the cutting process were carried out. Then, by performing modal testing on a milling machine and drawing chatter stability diagrams, we determined the stability regions of the machine tool operation and recognized the parameter that had the most important effect on chatter.
This work is aimed at developing relations between the pertinent variables that affect drilling process of stainless steel using artificial neural network. The experiments were conducted on vertical CNC machining centre. The parameters used were spindle speed and feed rate. The effect of machining parameters on entry burr height, exit burr height and surface roughness was experimentally evaluated for different spindle speeds and feed rates. A model was established between the drilling parameters and experimentally obtained data using ANN. The predicted values and measured values are fairly close, which indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the burr height and surface roughness in drilling of stainless steel. Genetic algorithm (GA) technique was used in this work to identify the optimized drilling parameters. Confirmation test was conducted with the optimized parameters and it was found that confirmation test results were similar to that of GA-predicted output values.
A case study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of condition monitoring techniques in the early failure detection of pumps in a thermal power plant. Various condition monitoring techniques used in this case study involved vibration analysis, motor current signature analysis, noise monitoring and wear debris analysis. These techniques were applied on the three pumps, namely boiler feed water pump, auxiliary cooling water pump and condensate extraction pump, which have to work continuously for the operation of the thermal power plant. Vibration analysis of the auxiliary cooling water pump showed that there is a rising trend in the acceleration values at its driving and non-driving end indicating the deterioration of bearings. Motor current index range of all the pumps was found to be within acceptable limits. Wear debris analysis of lubricant in the hydraulic coupling of boiler feed water pump indicated the presence of sand, dirt and low alloy steel sliding wear particles in it. Condition monitoring techniques have been proved to be an effective technique in early failure detection of pumps.
The present research studied fault diagnosis of composite sheets using vibration signal processing and artificial intelligence (AI)-based methods. To this end, vibration signals were collected from sound and faulty composite plates. Using different time-frequency signal analysis and processing methods, a number of features were extracted from these signals and the most effective features containing further information on these composite plates were provided as input to different classification systems. The output of these classification systems reveals the faults in composite plates. The different types of classification systems used in this research were the support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), artificial neural networks (ANNs), Extended Classifier System (XCS) algorithm, and the proposed improved XCS algorithm. The research results were reflective of the superiority of ANFIS in terms of precision, while this method had the highest process duration with an equal number of iterations. The precision of the proposed improved XCS method was lower than that of ANFIS, but the duration of the process was shorter than the ANFIS method with an equal number of iterations.
To analyse the effects of cylindrical- and row-trenched cooling holes with an alignment angle of 90 degrees on the film-cooling effectiveness near the combustor end wall surface at a blowing ratio of 3.18, the current research was done. This research included a 3D representation of a Pratt and Whitney gas turbine engine, which was simulated and analysed with a commercial finite volume package FLUENT 6.2.26. The analysis was done with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence model on internal cooling passages. This combustor simulator was combined with the interaction of two rows of dilution jets, which were staggered in the streamwise direction and aligned in the spanwise direction. In comparison with the baseline case of cooling holes, using row-trenched hole near the end wall surface increased the film-cooling effectiveness 44% in average.
The typical cryogenic condenser described here transfers the refrigerating effect from its inner side to its outer side through the wall of the condenser. The separate close refrigeration cycle operates on Reverse Stirling Cycle using hydrogen or helium as working fluid. The nitrogen gas gets liquefied when it comes in contact with the cold outer surface of the condenser. We have successfully developed a cryogenic condenser using copper of electrolytic grade for a liquefaction duty of 10 liters of liquid nitrogen per hour. Condenser effectiveness is evaluated by assembling it in Cryogenerator model, ZIF-1002 and by noting the liquefaction rate. Both the results are satisfactory. Selection of material, fabrication, testing of the condenser developed for a Cryogenerator have been described in the paper to assess its suitability for a Cryogenerator based on Reverse Stirling cycle liquefier.
In this paper, closed-form optimal parameters of inerter-based variant dynamic vibration absorber (variant IDVA) coupled to a primary system subjected to base excitation are derived based on classical fixed-points theory. The proposed variant IDVA is obtained by adding an inerter alone parallel to the absorber damper in the variant dynamic vibration absorber (variant DVA). A new set of optimum frequency and damping ratio of the absorber is derived, thereby resulting in lower maximum amplitude magnification factor than the inerter-based traditional dynamic vibration absorber (traditional IDVA). Under the optimum tuning condition of the absorbers, it is proved both analytically and numerically that the proposed variant IDVA provides a larger suppression of resonant vibration amplitude of the primary system subjected to base excitation. It is demonstrated that adding an inerter alone to the variant DVA provides 19% improvement in vibration suppression than traditional IDVA when the mass ratio is less than 0.2 and the effective frequency bandwidth of the proposed IDVA is wider than the traditional IDVA. The effect of inertance and mass ratio on the amplitude magnification factor of traditional and variant IDVA is also studied.
This research is concerned with the study of mechanical disturbances due to presence of ultra-short laser pulse as input heat source in a microstretch thermoelastic medium with microtemperatures. The medium is subjected to normal and tangential forces. The solution of the problems is developed in terms of normal modes. Mathematical expressions have been obtained for normal stress, tangential stress, microstress and temperature change. The numerically computed results are shown graphically. A mathematical model has been developed and various stress quantities have been analyzed. Some particular cases are also derived from the present investigation.
In this study, the instability of Walters’ (model B’) viscoelastic fluid in a Darcy-Brinkman-Boussinesq system heated from below saturating a porous medium in electrohydrodynamics is considered. By applying the linear stability analysis and normal modes, the dispersion relation accounting for the effect of Prandtl number, electric Rayleigh number, Darcy number, Brinkman-Darcy number, Taylor number and kinematic viscoelasticity parameter is derived. The effects of electric Rayleigh number, Darcy number, Brinkman-Darcy number and Taylor number on the onset of stationary convection have been investigated both analytically and graphically.
In this paper, the design and simulation of a hybrid vehicle with a fully functional driving model is presented. Actual velocities and desired velocities are compared and matched to get the optimum values of a vehicle. Fuel economy is calculated to get miles per gallon gasoline equivalent (MPGe). The MPGe for a hybrid vehicle is compared with the MPGe for a conventional vehicle to get the best MPGe in a hybrid car. A higher performance of output power of a vehicle is obtained.