Organic dyes are widely used in many industries (textiles, food, cosmetics, medicine and biology). These plants produce wastewater containing dyes. Even small amounts of dyes can cause a strong colour of wastewater. Therefore, it is very important to effectively remove residues of these pollutants from the wastewater, before discharging them into the environment. The sorption process is one of the methods used to remove dyes. However this method is often unprofitable economically in comparison with other dye removal processes, due to the high cost of commercial sorbents. Therefore, research is currently conducted in order to find waste materials that can be used as sorbents. The static sorption process of two dyes were carried out (Acid Red 18 and Acid Green 16) with the use of dried excess sludge. The activated sludge (excess) came from a municipal sewage treatment plant that purifies wastewater from carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus compounds. During the study the most favourable pH of the process and the contact time of the sorbent with the dyes were determined. It was observed that for both dyes the highest effectiveness of dye removal was obtained at pH = 2. The most favourable contact time was equal to 60 and 180 minutes for Acid Red 18 and Acid Green 16 respectively. In addition, in order to establish process parameters, a different models of sorption isotherm was examined. The studies showed that the sorption capacity (calculated based on Langmuir model) was much higher in the case of Acid Green 16 (qm = 434.8 mg/g) than for Acid Red 18 (qm = 109.9 mg/g). The experiments to evaluate the effect of pH, contact time on the process effectiveness and to determine the sorption isotherm were conducted at 293.15 K.
The objective of the study is research on a biofilter existing at a mechanical-biological waste treatment plant in Radom. The paper presents results of research on the filling of the analysed biofilter (moisture, organic matter content, nutrient content, pH, grain size composition, and equivalent diameter), process gases (temperature, humidity and pH, concentrations of the main pollutants - ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, volatile organic compounds, acetic acid, ethanol) and operational parameters (flow rate, height of the biofilter layer, surface load, gas residence time in the filter bed). Irregularities were observed related to biofiltration efficiency, particularly resulting from improperly selected filling material and improper biofilter operation. The technological research permitted the identification of problems and determination of the requirement of performing necessary operational changes. Further works will involve the design, manufacture, and installation of an integrated biofilter with two-stage gas purification process (a classic biofilter and a semi-permeable membrane).
In Europe the monitoring of lakes with regard to benthic diatoms is still conducted in line with the European Water Framework Directive. Ribbon lakes are a special case as extremely steep slopes of the lake basin cause their littoral zone to be narrow. The Durowskie ribbon lake was chosen as a model for the assessment of the ecological status of waters based on its Diatom Index. Given its use in recreation, it is under heavy anthropogenic pressure. Physicochemical and biological parameters were monitored in the peak of the vegetational season (July, August) between 2010 and 2018 at 12 varied littoral sites across the full length of the shoreline. This long-term analysis of the Diatom Index, despite showing an improvement in the quality of water, demonstrated the ecological state of Lake Durowskie to be weak (southern, deep part) to moderate (north, shallow part). The taxonomic structure of diatoms (referral and indicator taxa) in phytobenthos communities allowed to show the changes in physicochemical parameters of the environment such as pH, oxygen dissolved in water and its trophic status. Research results are shown in relation to the anthropogenic changes to the lake’s direct catchment area and the results of the physicochemical monitoring of waters.
Biochar produced from fermentation residue of maize hybrid was used in untreated form as a sorbent for the removal of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solution. The capability of biochar to immobilized ions was investigated by leaching test. Equilibrium between biochar sample and studied elements in solution was reached at a contact time 30 min for Zn(II) and 90 min for Pb(II) and Cd(II). The experimental data were described by pseudofirst-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic model, two- and three-parameter isotherms in non-linear form. The maximum sorption capacity achieved was 30.07 mg·g−1 in the case of Cd(II) ions, 99.44 mg·g−1 in the case of Pb(II) and 40.18 in the case of Zn(II). Biochar developed for this study is comparable to conventional biochar, low cost, non-toxic and experimental results show that is a suitable and efficient sorbent for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) removal from aqueous solutions.
The purpose of the experiment was to assess the effect of application of zinc ammonium acetate (ZAA) on yielding, morphological features and on selected vegetation indices of timothy cv. ‘Owacja’ cultivated for seeds. Zinc ammonium acetate that has a biostimulatory effect was used foliar in the carried out experiment. The experiment was conducted in the years 2015-2017 at the experimental station in Prusy near Krakow, a part of the Experimental Station of the Institute of Crop Production of the University of Agriculture in Krakow. The field experiment was set up in a randomized block design, in four replications, and the area of experimental plots was 10 m2. Degraded Chernozem formed from loess (classified to the first class quality soil) was present on the experimental area. The experiment consisted in applying ZAA as spray at three doses: 0.214, 0.267 and 0.400 kg(ZnNH4(CH3CO2)3)/ha. Based on the obtained preliminary results, it was found that application of foliar activator in a higher dose (0.400 kg/ha) caused a significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in seed yield, 1000-seed weight and in germination capacity in relation to the control. Improvement in morphological properties was also observed. Leaf greenness index (SPAD) was also determined. Its highest value was found in plants from the treatment where the highest dose of the zinc ammonium acetate was applied. Seeds obtained from plants treated with ZAA were riper (ripeness was measured with 1000-seed weight) and had higher germination capacity in relation to control treatments.
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of electromagnetic fields and their shielding on carrot seed quality. Three sectors were separated on the device emitting electromagnetic fields: “E” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation with the predominance of the electrical component, “EM” - sector emitting electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components and “M” - sector with a predominance of magnetic component. Fields generated by the device were also shielded with ADR TEX screen, based on a nanocomposite in which the electric component of the electromagnetic radiation is absorbed by water dispersed in a dielectric matrix in various ways. The composites exhibit high dielectric absorption and shield electric fields within the frequency range from ~100 mHz to ~100 kHz. Seed germination and vigour were evaluated at 20 °C in darkness. Mycological analysis was performed using a deep-freeze blotter test. Exposure of seeds to radiation with the predominance of the electrical component and electromagnetic radiation without domination of its components combined with shielding of electromagnetic fields with ADR TEX (E+ADR TEX and EM+ADR TEX) increased seed germination energy and germination capacity compared to these treatments without shielding and control. The percentage of abnormal diseased seedlings in treatments with shielding of electromagnetic fields with ADR TEX (E+ADR TEX, EM+ADR TEX and M+ADR TEX) was significantly lower than in the treatments without shielding and in control. None of the treatments affected seed vigour. Generally, exposure of seeds to electromagnetic radiation did not influence the incidence of fungi.
Plants have been used for their aromatic and medicinal purposes for centuries. The genus Pelargonium contains about 250-280 species and cultivated around the world for the production of essential oils and absolutes. Pelargonium species are remarkable for their odour diversity, from fresh, lemon and minty scent, through floral, rose, fruity up to spicy and camphoreous smell as well as many health beneficial properties, that is why their essential oils are widely used in perfume, cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to determine variability in populations of Pelargonium genus by evaluating their differences in quantitative and qualitative essential oils compositions. This study determined that of all the examined essential oil, the one of P. graveolens indoor cultivar has the closest C:G ratio (1.16) which makes it a very valuable product. In comparison with available literature, beside the geographical region of plant growth, all essential oils from P. graveolens contain a diverse range of compounds, nevertheless, in every single one, geraniol and citronellol are present in the most significant fraction of the total oil. The examined P. roseum essential oil was characterized by the highest level of citronellol (44.62 % of total oil), but it can be due to the chemical reactions (conversion geraniol into citronellol) occurring in stored product.
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of inside temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate and gas concentrations (NH3, N2O, CO2) on odour emissions from deep-litter piggery. The studied facility had temperature-controlled mechanical ventilation. The measurements were conducted from March to June 2014. During the research, selected microclimate parameters, as well as number and mass of animals were monitored and air samples were collected (two samples of air in each series of measurements). Temperature and relative humidity were measured using Testo 435-4 multifunctional measuring instrument. To measurements of gas concentrations was used the photo-acoustic spectrometer Multi Gas Monitor Model 1312. The concentration of odours in the air samples was determined by dynamic olfactometry with the TO 8 olfactometer, according to PN-EN 13725:2007. The odour concentration ranged from 450 to 2004 ouE · m–3 (mean 1048 ouE · m–3) and the mean odour emission factor was from 5.76 to 46.79 ouE · (s · pig)−1 (mean 20.93 ouE· (s · pig)−1.The statistical analysis showed that the inside temperature explained most of the variability of the odour concentration and the relationship was described by equation: cod = 5634 – 197 Tinside (R2 = 0.82, p ≤ 0.05). For odour emission factor, two parameters: the inside temperature and ventilation rate, explained most of the variability, according to the equation: EFod = 108 + 1939 VR – 5.5 Tinside (R2 = 0.81, p ≤ 0.05).
The analysis of UV-VIS spectrum was used for testing changes through 36 days and the impact of external conditions (reduced temperature (R), microwave radiation (M) and normal conditions (NC) for comparisons) on the stability of: BSA and BSA-Fe2+ complexes after different treating procedure. The increase of BSA absorption with increasing concentration of Fe2+ was observed. Increased absorption of BSA, and BSA-Fe2+ with time, related probably to conformational changes present in the protein and changes in electrostatic reactions within the BSA-Fe2+ complexes. Examination of the impact of an external factor on stabilization of the protein and complexes showed a tendency to keep the stability under reduced temperature and a trend with accelerated protein and complex aging under microwave radiation. The observed tendencies to changes under the influence of external factors became more significant in time. These effects were most probably related to changes of the protein structure and time, while the observed trend of accelerating the changes was impacted by the applied external factors.
This work was aimed at evaluating the sorption of dispersed oil by kapok fiber. The physicochemical characteristics of kapok fiber were investigated using BET, SEM, FTIR, XRD, contact angle and elemental analysis. The oil droplet size distribution at different temperatures was analysed using a Coulter counter, and its relationship with sorption was investigated. The effects of dosage, hydraulic retention time and temperature, on the sorption performance were studied. The result indicates that the sorption of dispersed oil by kapok fiber is spontaneous, endothermic and agreed with the pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The amount of oil that could be removed is about 28.5 %, while that of water is less than 1 % of the original amount (0.5 dm3). Kapok is a promising natural hydrophobic fiber for dispersed oil removal from oily wastewater.