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Abstract

The paper presents research on the near real-time atmospheric sounding system. The main objective of the research was the development and testing of the weather sounding system based on a weather balloon. The system contains a redundant system of radiosondes, a lifting platform containing weather balloon and a holding system as well as ground station. Several tests of the system were performed in August and September 2019. Altitude, reliability, resistance to weather conditions and data convergence were tested. During tests, new procedures for such missions were developed. The final test was performed for the ILR-33 Amber Rocket as a part of pre-launch procedures. The test was successful and allowed to use acquired atmospheric data for further processing. Several post-tests conclusions were drawn. The altitude of sounding by a weather balloon depends mostly on weather conditions, the amount of gas pumped and the weight of a payload. The launching place and experience of the crew play an important role in the final success of the mission, as well.

Abstract

The presented paper considers a comparison of the traditional methods for the state maximal probability determination to the proposed hybrid probabilistic and variational concept. It is shown the advantages of the described multi-optional hybrid-effectiveness functions uncertainty measure conditional optimization doctrine in the sense of avoiding the traditional ways analytical complicatedness concerning the maximal probability of the possible state determination. The results of the numerical example are presented.

Abstract

The article is in line with the contemporary interests of companies from the aviation industry. It describes thermoplastic material and inspection techniques used in leading aviation companies. The subject matter of non-destructive testing currently used in aircraft inspections of composite structures is approximated and each of the methods used is briefly described. The characteristics of carbon preimpregnates in thermoplastic matrix are also presented, as well as types of thermoplastic materials and examples of their application in surface ship construction. The advantages, disadvantages and limitations for these materials are listed. The focus was put on the explanation of the ultrasonic method, which is the most commonly used method during the inspection of composite structures at the production and exploitation stage. Describing the ultrasonic method, the focus was put on echo pulse technique and the use of modern Phased Array heads. Incompatibilities most frequently occurring and detected in composite materials with thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix were listed and described. A thermoplastic flat composite panel made of carbon pre-impregnate in a high-temperature matrix (over 300°C), which was the subject of the study, was described. The results of non-destructive testing (ultrasonic method) of thermoplastic panel were presented and conclusions were drawn.

Abstract

Noise generated by helicopters is one of the main problems associated with the operation of rotorcrafts. Requirements for reduction of helicopter noise were reflected in the regulations introducing lower limits of acceptable rotorcraft noise. A significant source of noise generated by helicopters are the main rotor and tail rotor blades. Radical noise reduction can be obtained by slowing down the blade tips speed of main and tail rotors. Reducing the rotational speed of the blades may decrease rotor thrust and diminish helicopter performance. The problem can be solved by attaching more blades to main rotor. The paper presents results of calculation regarding improvement of the helicopter performance which can be achieved for reduced rotor speed but with increased number of rotor blades. The calculations were performed for data of hypothetical light helicopter. Results of simulation include rotor loads and blade deformations in chosen flight conditions. Equations of motion of flexible rotor blades were solved using the Galerkin method which takes into account selected eigen modes of the blades. The simulation analyzes can help to determine the performance and loads of a quiet helicopter with reduced rotor speed within the operational envelope of helicopter flight states.

Abstract

One of important problems in aerospace engineering is to determine the amount of fluid in the tank in a microgravity environment. There are several methods for doing it, however, there are no proven methods to quickly gauge the amount of propellant in a tank in low gravity conditions. New and more accurate methods of such a measurement are being continually searched for. One of interesting solutions is using Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT) for this purpose. The article presents both numerical analysis and experimental test results using a spherical tank. The main purpose of the simulation was to determine the effect of the number of electrodes and noise signal level on the quality of reconstruction images. In numerical simulations, different models of dielectric permittivity distribution have been reconstructed. On the basis of numerical simulations, a 24-electrode sensor was designed and made. In experimental tests, different distribution of medium inside the spherical tank was investigated. The results show that the method can directly measure the mass of fuel in the tank, as well as it allows for a visualization of fuel distribution, independent of the tank position in space, and the liquid-propellant system will be used.

Abstract

Autonomous underwater gliders are buoyancy propelled vehicles. Their way of propulsion relies upon changing their buoyancy with internal pumping systems enabling them up and down motions, and their forward gliding motions are generated by hydrodynamic lift forces exerted on a pair of wings attached to a glider hull. In this study lift and drag characteristics of a glider were performed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) approach and results were compared with the literature. Flow behavior, lift and drag forces distribution at different angles of attack were studied for Reynolds numbers varying around 105 for NACA0012 wing configurations. The variable of the glider was the angle of attack, the velocity was constant. Flow velocity was 0.5 m/s and angle of the body varying from −8° to 8° in steps of 2°. Results from the CFD constituted the basis for the calculation the equations of motions of glider in the vertical plane. Therefore, vehicle motion simulation was achieved through numeric integration of the equations of motion. The equations of motions will be solved in the MatLab software. This work will contribute to dynamic modelling and three-dimensional motion simulation of a torpedo shaped underwater glider.

Abstract

The article presents research conducted with the project: ‘Additive manufacturing in conduction with optical methods used for optimization of 3D models’’ [2]. The article begins with the description of properties of the materials used in three different additive technologies – Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Material Jetting (MJ). The next part focuses on the comparative analysis of macro- and microstructure of specimens printed in order to test selected materials in additive technologies mentioned above. In this research two types of specimens were used: dumbbell specimens and rectangular prism with hole specimens. In order to observe macrostructure specimens, they were subjected to load test until it broke. In the case of observing microstructure, they were cut in some places. Each of described additive technologies characterizes by both different way of printing and used materials. These variables have a significant influence on macro- and microstructure and fracture appearance. FDM technology specimens printed of ABS material characterized by texture surface appearance. SLS technology specimens printed of PA12 material characterized by amorphous structure. MJ technology specimens printed of VeroWhite Plus material characterized by fracture appearance which had quasi- fatigue features. The microstructure of these specimens was uniform with visible inclusions.

Abstract

The article presents the description of technological trials and the results of three methods of machining carbon fiber reinforced composites panels. It also reviews the literature concerned heat affected zone in composites and its influence on material properties. As a part of the research, the cutting method using diamond coated saw was tested, as well as the milling method with two different types of carbide milling cutters. The processing of the panels was done using 4-axis CNC machine with special adapter for cutting discs in Composite Testing Laboratory (Center for Composite Technologies, Warsaw Institute of Aviation). The methods were compared in terms of machined edge quality and panel temperature during the processes. For this purpose, thermocouples were mounted into panels. Records from thermocouples were included. Edge quality and surface roughness have been checked by microscopic observation. Additionally, samples machined by each evaluated processing method were tested using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The method was used to determine the glass transition temperature of the tested material. The article conclusions contain a comparison of three processing methods in terms of cutting quality, process temperature, processing method productivity as well as DSC tests results.

Abstract

Advanced jet training still relies on old concepts and solutions that are no longer efficient when considering the current and forthcoming changes in air combat. The cost of those old solutions to develop and maintain combat pilot skills are important, adding even more constraints to the training limitations. The requirement of having a trainer aircraft able to perform also light combat aircraft operational mission is adding unnecessary complexity and cost without any real operational advantages to air combat mission training.

Thanks to emerging technologies, the JANUS project will study the feasibility of a brand-new concept of agile manoeuvrable training aircraft and an integrated training system, able to provide a live, virtual and constructive environment. The JANUS concept is based on a lightweight, low-cost, high energy aircraft associated to a ground based Integrated Training System providing simulated and emulated signals, simulated and real opponents, combined with real-time feedback on pilot’s physiological characteristics: traditionally embedded sensors are replaced with emulated signals, simulated opponents are proposed to the pilot, enabling out of sight engagement. JANUS is also providing new cost effective and more realistic solutions for “Red air aircraft” missions, organised in so-called “Aggressor Squadrons”.

Abstract

This article has a theoretical and experimental character. It presents the characteristics of two main thermoplastics used in the aerospace industry – poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) and poly phenylene sulphide (PPS). The selected materials are compounds for the production of thermoplastic polymer matrix composites. The paper presents a literature review of the application of thermoplastic polymer matrix composite materials in aviation. Additionally, the paper focuses on the characteristics of carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) which plays an important role in the production of aerospace components. Testing methods have been chosen on the basis of the type of composite matrix. The article contains the most important mechanical properties and general characteristics of thermoplastics used as a matrix for CFRP type composites used in the aerospace industry. Individual test procedures which allow for the evaluation of mechanical properties of composite materials on a thermoplastic polymer matrix, have been described. Mechanical tests such as static tensile test and bending of short beams were carried out in order to examine CFRP composites.