In this research work, rotating savings and credit association (ROSCA) effect on the growth of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) and identification of a factor supporting the continuity of ROSCAs is studied. A well-designed questionnaire with a reliability value of 0.957 was distributed to 400 entrepreneurs in Wukari through snowball sampling technique. After validity check, 368 valid questionnaires were used for the research. Firstly, a paired t-test was applied to know if entrepreneurs achieve significant positive growth in their business before and after 5 years of joining ROSCAs. At 5% level of significance, entrepreneurs achieved significant positive growth in their businesses 5 years and above of joining ROSCAs. Secondly, a one sample proportion Z-score test was used to identify the major factor responsible for ROSCAs continuity. At 5% significance level, flexibility was identified as the major factor responsible for ROSCAs. It was concluded based on the results obtained that ROSCAs has a significant positive effect on the growth of MSMEs and ROSCAs continuity towards MSMEs growth is due to its flexibility factor in terms of operations, disbursement, seeking loans and interest rate.
The aim of the paper is to identify determinants of the efficiency of service companies from two Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries4—Poland and Belarus. These transition economies represent different economic and systemic conditions. That is why it is worth analyzing whether external conditions determine internal efficiency factors in service companies. In order to achieve that aim quantitative research was conducted among 305 Polish and Belarusian service enterprises. The research results presented significant differences in responses between the two countries. For Polish enterprises the main determinants of efficiency were above all connected with competent and skilled staff. Belarussian companies regarded as efficiency factors which determine the demand level by means of access toward foreign markets and possibilities of internationalization. It proves that CEECs are not homogeneous and they represent different levels of economic development as well as the different conditions of running a business.
Why do countries engage in Regional Financial Cooperation (RFC) initiatives and why they may give up on them? Under which conditions are those mechanisms born and how may changes affect their performance? Although comparative studies have been a prolific strategy to investigate RFC the focus on the experiences of a specific region may reveal new insights. Therefore the aim of this paper is to map the existing RFC mechanisms in Latin America, seeking to identify the demand, supply and conjectural conditions behind the processes of their creation and evolution. The theoretical framework provides concepts from International Relations’ theories concerning regional institution building. Empirically fourteen Latin American RFC initiatives are surveyed. As a result important variables explaining RFC mechanisms in Latin America are presented in the paper: demand for greater participation (sense of belonging), material and political capacity from a paymaster and macroeconomic coordination.
In the present study, generalized classes of estimators for estimating population mean, ratio and product of two population means using rank of auxiliary character in presence of non-response are proposed. The bias and mean square error of proposed classes of estimators are obtained and their performances examined. Specific conditions under which the members of proposed classes of estimators attain minimum mean square error are obtained. Comparative study of the proposed classes of estimators with the relevant estimators is carried out. An empirical study is given to justify the efficiency of the proposed classes of estimators.
The aim of this paper is to analyze the employment-related real income gaps according to the education level reached by the working population during the 1997–2017 period. Using a panel methodology (pseudo-cohorts) it sums up that throughout recession, employment-related real income gaps by education level are wider, amplifying income inequality. During the economic boom the narrowing of the gap was due to the weak growth in skilled employment that did not manage to recover the pre-crisis values. This phenomenon is typical of a labour market structure with less skilled employment demand than its increasing supply. The employment-related difference in reduction of the real income gaps is exclusively reflected by a decline in employees from the highest education segment. The whole of tertiary education although with less intensity, replicates its trend. Not only educational credentials increase future employment-related income but also starting then not completing a university degree provides a significant disparity. Gender control shows a sharp drop in its determination.
The Bolsa Familia program of money transfers to the roughly 50 million poor at the bottom of the pyramid is internationally known but its success was grounded in a much wider set of 149 programs constituting an integrated and inter-sector policy. With inequality presently soaring not only in Brazil but throughout the world the aim of this paper is to understand how inclusive and sustainable policies can work both for society and the economy and assess their performance in Brazil as an illustration of institutional change as a key approach. Equally essential is understanding the power of the global financial interests which generated the drama of 1 percent having more wealth than the other 99 percent. Both mechanisms, of inclusion and exclusion, are analyzed here, on the basis of the Brazilian experience.
Collaborative consumption is currently an exciting topic of interest for many debates and controversies being perceived as a fast-growing social phenomenon. Considering the contemporary development processes via sharing economy, there is an interest to prove that the segment of young consumers practices changed from traditional buying and owning behaviour to collaborative consumption stratagems. Thus, the central objective of the present study is to explore the potential young consumer behaviour adjustments and to discuss the motivations behind those changes by considering the emergence of collaborative consumption.
The primary hypothesis of the present article states that intrinsic and extrinsic motivations influence teenager’s attitudes and behavioural intentions regarding participation in collaborative consumption.
Regarding the methodology, the author’s performed confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The objective was to determine if previously exposed motivational factors influence positively the young consumer’s behavioural intention and their attitude towards a supposed adherence to collaborative consumption schemes.