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Mathematical models of economic dynamics and growth are usually expressed in terms of differential equations/inclusions (in the case of continuous time) or difference equations/inclusions (if discrete time is assumed).3 This class of models includes von Neumann-Leontief-Gale type dynamic input-output models to which the paper refers. The paper focuses on the turnpike stability of optimal growth processes in a Gale non-stationary economy with discrete time in the neighbourhood of von Neumann dynamic equilibrium states (so-called growth equilibrium). The paper refers to Panek (2019, 2020) and shows an intermediate result between the strong and very strong turnpike theorem in the non-stationary Gale economy with changing technology assuming that the prices of temporary equilibrium in such an economy (so-called von Neumann prices) do not change rapidly. The aim of the paper is to bring mathematical proof that the introduction of these assumptions making the model more realistic does not change its asymptotic (turnpike-like) properties.


Research Purpose. This article examined critical thinking skills amongst senior-level undergraduate students in a Middle East setting, Kuwait. In addition, the study investigated the gender differences.

Methodology. The subjects involved in this study comprised a convenience sample of 90 graduating seniors. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of two motivational factors on the development of critical thinking skills. The analysis used the specific subsection about critical thinking skills, which is part of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). One factor relates the sense of entitlement that can arise in a welfare state, which heavily subsidises a wide range of things for citizens, including education. We examined differences between citizens and non-citizens, who do not have access to welfare benefits.

Findings. The results supported the hypotheses that student groups have different levels of critical thinking skills. We found that expatriate students had more highly developed critical thinking skills than students who were Kuwaiti citizens. We also found that women had more highly developed critical thinking skills than men had.

Practical Implications. The welfare state measures undertaken by the government of Kuwait may be counterproductive. The guaranteed employment of its citizens and generous monetary support whilst in school may discourage the development of critical thinking skills. Future research could focus on ways to motivate particular groups (e.g. Kuwaiti men) to enhance their critical thinking skills.


The present study addressed the issue of whether occupational Burnout Syndrome (BS) is associated with Romantic Relationship Dissatisfaction (RRS) among academics; it was also expected that Workplace Bullying (WPB) moderates the relationship between these variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted by delivering the questionnaire surveys to the recruited sample group of 320 university lecturers from three different universities in Northern Cyprus to test the research hypothesis. Moderated multiple regression analysis was used to analyze the data. As it was hypothesized, our results indicated a negative association between burnout syndrome and romantic relationship satisfaction; indicating higher levels of burnout might lead to lower romantic relationship satisfaction. However, the proportion of romantic relationship satisfaction total score varied slightly when workplace bullying moderated this relationship. Our findings contribute to different scientific aspects by its valuable implications for researchers, practitioners, academicians, managers, and various organization staffs’ self-awareness.


Research purpose. The importance of sustainable development, the need to achieve sustainable economic development that does not harm the environment, conserve natural resources or exacerbate tensions in society has been increasingly discussed over the last decade. The purpose of the research is to evaluate the economic growth and decent work environment in G20 countries during 2013–2018 as G20 countries are the fastest growing countries in the world, and their economy describes the major part of the global economy.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Qualitative data analysis based on the comparative analysis of scientific literature, content analysis, interpretation, comparison and grouping is used, in order to analyse the theoretical aspects of sustainable development and its goals, especially goal 8: decent work and economic growth. TOPSIS method helps to rank G20 countries according to the indicators of SDG 8.

Findings. The results showed that Japan reached the best work environment and the most significant economic growth during 2013–2018. The United States is in second place and the third – the Republic of Korea. In the bottom three are Argentina, Brazil and South Africa.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. Since it is challenging to identify the achievements of the economic and work environment development, as an essential part of sustainable development goals, the results could lead to future insights that will create value to policymakers, economists and other stakeholders.


This study aims to examine the potential causal relationship between the VIX and the indicator stock exchange index returns of G20 (9 developed and 10 developing) countries. Nineteen countries of the sample are G20 countries with available data. In this respect, the frequency domain Granger causality test of Breitung and Candelon (2006) is employed for the daily data between March 2011 and December 2017. The results obtained from the study indicate that there is no causal relationship between the VIX and the returns of the NASDAQ 100 index in developed countries. Similarly, no causal relationship is detected which runs from the VIX to the BIST100, BOVESPA, MERVAL, S&P/BMV IPC and TADAWUL stock index returns in developing countries. As a result, the causal relationship is more tend to be found in developed countries in comparison to developing countries.


The coronavirus pandemic has led to a loss of revenues for enterprises and workers due to workplace closures and restrictions on movement to ‘flatten the curve’. In response, governments have made available temporary financial support to enterprises and workers affected. This paper evaluates a group currently excluded from this support, namely enterprises and workers in the undeclared economy, and a possible government policy response. To identify those involved, a 2019 Eurobarometer survey of undeclared work in Europe is reported. This reveals that one in every 132 European citizens relies wholly on undeclared earnings and the sectors and population groups involved. Given their reduced revenues and inability to access the temporary financial support, a voluntary disclosure initiative is recommended which brings undeclared enterprises and workers into the declared economy and onto the radar of state authorities by offering access to this temporary financial support if they disclose their previous undeclared work.


Research purpose. This article aims at distinguishing and weighting the educational factors that could have an impact on young people’s choice to study in European higher education institutions (HEIs).

Design/Methodology/Approach. To achieve the aim, previous research and scientific literature were studied and experts from student society and the higher education sector, who deal with international students, were interviewed. The developed questionnaire was based on pairwise comparison procedure, and the obtained data were processed using the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) method.

Findings. The findings revealed that the following factors are the most critical for students who want to study at European HEIs: provision of programmes that are taught in English, the existence of scholarship opportunities, provision of different facilities in the campus, and accreditation of the study programme and university.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The current study focuses on a topic that has been studied fragmentally, that is, on which factors are crucial for an international student to choose HEI in Europe. The current research contributes to the existing scientific literature by identifying and systemising educational factors influencing young people’s choice to study in Europe. The obtained results could be useful for professionals who are responsible for strategic partnerships at European universities.


Research purpose. The main task of this article consists in outlining several conceptions of teaching that we consider crucial to develop knowledge, skills and personal qualities in future managers, which they need in a constantly changing innovative business environment.

Design/Methodology/Approach. Methods of contrastive analysis, method of decomposition and questionnaire survey form the methodological basis of research.

Findings. As a result of empirical research, the article describes the level of students’ demand for mastering innovative skills and the extent to which this demand is met in the framework of educational programme.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. The method elaborated in the article is easily applicable in different educational programmes, economic subjects and environments as well as different curriculum plans. It is expected that improved learning skills and satisfaction will increase learning outcomes in long-term outlook. The article suggests new integrated teaching approach to organising collaborative work so that the full potential of students in solving economic problems is developed through and alongside the use of interactive learning tasks. It relies on thorough analysis of reasons for students’ critical attitude towards creative and innovative thinking in their profession.


Research purpose. To get a validation of the structure, pillars and components that seem to be central, and under which, business management and managers need to develop abilities and competences to ensure the sustainability of their organizations according to the ‘DPOBE Model for Organizational Sustainability’ structure.

Design/Methodology/Approach. For the validation of the structure, pillars and components and it’s practical application to measure the organization’s sustainability level with the referred model, despite the focus group exercise made in an early stage, it’s also important to get a solid opinion about it among managers and also in academia, specifically among teachers and investigators on management, business administration and economics as well near master and doctorate students in this field. In this paper, we analyse the results obtained in an exploratory study, based on a survey made among students from four different master’s degree in several specific areas of business management from the School of Business Administration from the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal (Portugal).

Findings. Main results obtained with this exploratory study let the authors be granted with the developments made so far in the model and its structure, pillars and components. However, only with a major collection of opinions (answer to the survey) from the referred groups, it’s possible to define and adjust the final structure and components of the DPOBE Model.

Originality/Value/Practical implications. Being an investigation with several years of development, with several articles, chapters of books, master’s degree thesis, congress presentations and papers made so far, only with a solid and validated structure, pillars and components of the DPOBE Model for Organizational Sustainability, it’s possible to go to its aim, the use of it as a quantitative tool to measure the effective organizations sustainability in a way different from other existing sustainability tools and indexes.


The aim of this paper is to examine a complex pattern of mutual interdependence between Unified Growth Theory (subroutine) and the evolution of the entire field of economic growth theories (main routine) from a philosophical and methodological perspective. The analysis utilises the recently introduced concept of research routine (and respectively, subroutine) aimed at an explanation of the evolution of scientific research. The study identifies the influence of the subroutine (and its specific concept of demographic transition) on the core concepts of the main routine: human capital, population growth and learning. The results are based on network analyses of extensive bibliometric evidence from Scopus and the Web of Knowledge.