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Research purpose: Food security remains a major component of economic development. Many developing nations are facing challenges of food insecurity, which had contributed to starvation and other societal problems. With adequate food intake, human healthy living is assured. This study investigates the impact of access to formal finance and indigenous technology and knowledge on food security in Ondo central senatorial district in Ondo state, Nigeria.

Methodology: In total, 216 farmers were sampled, and data were collected through a well-structured questionnaire and focus interviews. Data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics and logit estimation technique.

Findings: Descriptive statistics show that there are more male farmers (61.1%) than female counterparts (38.9%), with most of the farmers (42.7%) in their ages 56 years and above and with 51.9% having primary education. Majority of the farmers (65.7%) engage in arable crop farming, while 15.2 and 19.1% engage in cash crop and livestock farming, respectively. The econometric model reveals that age, income, gender, education, marital status, religion, family size, assets owned and distance are major determinants of a farmer’s decision on account ownership, savings and borrowing. Indigenous knowledge of soil fertility, disease-resistant and quickly-growing crops, food storage, local weather, water management, pest and diseases control are significant determinants of food security in Ondo central senatorial district. Likewise, account ownership, savings and borrowing from formal financial institutions are significant determinants of food security.

Practical implications: It is, therefore, important that efforts to ease access to formal financial services and improve indigenous technology to serve as complement to modern farming techniques to achieve food security be made a priority by government and private institutions.


Subject and purpose of work: Running an agricultural activity requires acquiring funds necessary for its functioning and proper development. The most classic examples of financing agricultural activity include all kinds of bank loans used by farmers for the purchase of agricultural land, construction and modernization of buildings, the purchase of machinery and equipment, as well as the establishment of perennial plantations or the purchase of a herd. The aim of the study is to present the possibilities of financing agricultural activity by cooperative banks in the Podlaskie Voivodeship.

Materials and methods: The study used the method of observation and analysis of banking materials. The source of information was the data of cooperative banks, the Agency for Restructuring and Modernization of Agriculture and the Central Statistical Office.

Results: Over the centuries, cooperative banks have developed techniques, methods and practices in the field of agricultural lending. They have somehow specialized in this area and offer farmers a full range of commercial loans. They have also actively participated in the redistribution of funds under the implementation of the EU Common Agricultural Policy. for many years. Currently operating farms have access to many forms of financing (the most developed and available in banks, however, are loans) depending on their financial needs or planned investments.

Conclusions: Among many forms of foreign capital in agriculture, it is preferential loans that play a significant role as a stimulus to improve farm activities. Granting loans by cooperative banks is one of the basic tasks in their operations. Bank loans play an important role in changes taking place in agriculture. They generally do not violate the principles of market economy and financing rules, provided that the financial and credit policy takes into account the needs and limitations resulting from the current and forecast economic situation of farms.


Employees who have a high level of engagement can be a solution to performance problems, because they feel tied to the organization and work enthusiastically. The study aims to determine the condition of engagement and analyse the factors that can affect the level of engagement of employees of bank front lines in the city of Bandung. The method used in this research is descriptive method by applying exploratory factor analysis to 42 factors that influence employee engagement. The results of the study found that the 42 factors were quite influential in increasing the engagement of Bank front liner employees in the city of Bandung. And 5 new factors are formed which consist of: Individual Factors Facility Factors; Motivation Factors; and Career Factors.


Total public debt of ten cantons in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), one of the two entities in BiH, have substantially increased in recent years. Since it is relatively small in nominal terms, this galloping trend have not attracted enough attention of decision makers. If these developments continue in the future, the public debt at cantonal level in FBiH might create serious fiscal problems and become one of central issues for policy makers. This has motivated our investigation of determinants that caused the increase in public debt over the period 2012-2018.

We apply a panel regression analysis and investigate how budget deficit, trade balance, unemployment rate, size of population and institutional changes affect public debt. We find that public debt is positively associated with budget deficit but negatively associated with trade balance, the size of population and institutional changes. These findings motivated policy recommendations presented in the paper.


This study establishes long-run relations between budget deficits and inflation, while controlling for money supply owing to the justified links between deficits and money supply especially for developing countries. We employed time series data with temporal coverage of 1980-2018. Augmented Dickey Fuller has tested nonstationary for all series, but with all stationary at first difference. The Engle-Granger (1981) methodology for Cointegration tested long-run relation between budget deficits, money supply and inflation. Due to Laney and Willet (1983), the conventional least squares regression was adopted to estimate parameters of long-run equation. The results evidenced that fiscal deficits and money supply have been at the root of galloping inflation in Ethiopia. Besides, budget deficits have been the root cause of money supply growth in Ethiopia; while giving empirical support to the hypothesis that, governments of least developed countries resort to monetize large portion of their deficits. There is a need to reform the fiscal aspect of the government, if the mounting rate of deficits has to be lessened. Budgetary imbalances can be rectified through enhancement of domestic capital market and setting limits on central bank borrowing. Besides, it could be vital to expand the tax base as well as intensify efficiency of the existing tax system in the country.


A recent survey found that the unadjusted average hourly net wage rate of female employees in Kosovo exceeded that of male employees. This reverse gender wage gap makes Kosovo a curiosity, though results from other countries suggest that there is an inverse relationship between the size of the gender pay gap in a country and its female labour force participation rate. In the analysis below we estimate earning functions for female and male employees in Kosovo. Using decomposition analyses we then examine the size of the explained and unexplained gender wage gaps. A novel feature of the investigation is that we incorporate into the analysis gender differences in the allocation of time. We find that the superior productivity-related characteristics of female employees in Kosovo hides the magnitude of the difficulties they still face in the labour market. Hence, we conclude that once we focus on workers with similar observed productivity-related characteristics, women in Kosovo are paid significantly less than men.


This mixed method study aims to examine the relationship between big-five personality traits and workplace spirituality from a managerial perspective by analyzing its potential effects on management. In the quantitative step, the cross-sectional survey was employed as the data collection, and the data were obtained from a sampling group through the simple random sampling. Further, the qualitative part of the study was designed as a purposive sampling technique. The quantitative research data were obtained from 238 participants working in a public university in Turkey. The qualitative data were obtained by interviewing a group of 14 people from the same sample of participants working as administrators at the same university. The qualitative data of the study were analyzed by content analysis. The findings indicate that the harmony between the perception of personality structures and workplace spirituality has an important function in the adoption of workplace values by the employees.


European monetary integration must be understood as an additional step towards strengthening the close ties that have been fostered after the Second World War. The aim of this research is to determine the effect of adopting the euro in terms of productivity growth, measured as the total factor productivity (TPF) variation. We used a panel data analysis with two-way fixed effects to estimate the effects of Euro adoption on the productivity growth. Two panels from 1996 to 2016 were used –one comprised 28 countries of EU members; the other only included 13 countries which joined the EU since 2004. Our findings suggest that the productivity growth of the countries that joined in 2004 and adopted the euro was higher compared to those that maintained their own currency. In addition, we find that FDI was the main channel through which the adoption of the euro influenced productivity growth.


This paper investigates the impact of risk classification on life insurance ratemaking with particular reference to Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The research is based on a sample of over eighteen thousand insurance policies for passenger vehicles collected over the period 2015-2020. In our empirical investigation we develop a standard risk model based on the application of Poisson Generalized linear models (GLM) for claims frequency estimate and Gamma GLM for claim severity estimate. The analysis reveals that GLM does not provide a reliable parameter estimates for Multi-level factor (MLF) categorical predictors. Although GLM is widely used method to deter insurance premiums, improvements of GLM by using the data mining methods identified in this paper may solve practical challenges for the risk models. The popularity of applying data mining methods in the actuarial community has been growing in recent years due to its efficiency and precision. These models are recommended to be considered in BiH and South East European region in general.


This study aims to estimate the welfare gains of the Philippine milkfish industry in establishing local fry hatcheries to reduce imports from Indonesia and Taiwan. It also seeks to identify the industry stakeholders who gain from this import substitution endeavour. The economic surplus model was used to estimate the welfare gains from the commercialization of the hatchery-bred milkfish fry in the fishery sector. Specifically, the changes in consumer and/or producer surplus per stakeholder were compared to determine who the biggest gainers are. Results of the study showed that the consumer surplus from the milkfish fry industry was larger than its producer surplus. On the other hand, the reverse was true for the grow-out industry. It is interesting to note that the consumers in the fry industry and the producer in the grow-out industry were the same set of stakeholders, i.e., the milkfish grow-out operators, who gained the most from this development. The study also showed that commercializing the local milkfish hatchery technologies can bring about more benefits to the country than importing fry and fingerlings. Hence, the development of local hatcheries for other aquaculture species can be expected to bring similar welfare gains. More importantly, the technical and financial assistance that were extended by the government’s fishery institutions through the GAINEX project as pioneered by DOST-PCAARRD can serve as an effective catalyst to prospective hatchery operators in reducing the risks, especially when setting-up a new enterprise like the hatchery-bred fry for an emerging aquaculture species in the country.