The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE)(109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.
Wheat is one of the important cereal crops in Nepal as well as globally. But due to varied climatic and sowing conditions low production has been reported throughout the world including Nepal. Sowing rates are highly correlated to yield and its yield attributing characters. Yield loss has been reported 50-62% under a late sown condition which shows a heavy threat to food security problems. Vijaya is the most recommended varieties under late sown conditions due to its high yield and less threat to late sown conditions. Thus identification and release of varieties suitable under late sown conditions are of the utmost importance. Researches should be accelerated under different agro-ecological zones to study the constraints associated with late sown wheat in Nepal.
Carbon emission is the biggest problem all over the world. The actualizing of low carbon emission in the bread kitchen and dessert shop segment permits the difference in its mechanical procedure through the improvement of an eco-proficient framework. This study was to line up bread and cake with fully completely different wheat quality, baking time, and temperature through low carbon emission. The prepared samples were chemically analyzed for wet content, ash content, compound content, and organoleptic. Among the four processed cake products based on each parameter tested organoleptically, cupcake products were the most preferable one. Bread products made with substitution of 50% have been received by consumer panelists. The results of this study were also in line with the research conducted by which resulted in a substitution of spinach flour substitution of up to 60% still acceptable by panelists. Sponge cake from flour can still be received by panelists with 50% substitution. 12% of moisture will help 5 days’ self-life without chemical preservatives. The oven is the largest of the three consumers and typically accounts for between 35% and 45% of the total site carbon emissions. The dark cake pan, which holds in more heat than light-colored baking pans and bakes our cake batter faster. Considering that the most significant dark non-stick pan was suggested for baking low carbon emission, it will be reducing the baking temperature by 25° F. Good practice opportunities can be delivered for various plant/equipment utility serving could deliver on average a 10% saving in total CO2 emissions for the sector. This would speak to a CO2 decrease of 57 000 ton CO2 / year over the world.
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.
This review tends to analyze the importance of halal animal feed from the Islamic standpoint and describes the drawbacks of non-halal. Mischievousness to animal handling during production, transport, and slaughter in states where Islam is the main doctrine has created doubts about the quality of products. Islam is a religious conviction that illustrates empathy to animals and well-being of humankind food as mentioned in the holy book Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). In a variety of animal-based halal food products, a Muslim should be conscious of not only about the rearing organization of the animals but also the slaughtering procedure. Animal feed is the preliminary Critical Control Point to establish the halal authenticity of animal-based food products. Regardless of the recognized agenda on animal feed in Middle East Asia, impurity in animal feed ingredients is still occurring and repetitively reported by the media. Feed inflicts direct effect on the animal originated feedstuffs like meat, milk, and eggs and it has been acknowledged as the foremost cause of diseases in both humans as well as animals. Consequently, any action that is associated with the production of livestock must be intimately explored to spot any vulnerability with liable Islamic laws of food and hit upon those traditions to avoid them. The intent of this review is to appraise the halal nutritional system of animals and see whether it has any optimistic or depressing effects on the health of the customers. Our advancement will be comprehensive as we have focused on the socio-religious aspects of human health. The verdict of this review could be made as an orientation by the policymakers of emerging officially authorized business bodies for producing, importing and auction of halal animal feed according to Islamic set of guidelines.
Boesenbergia rotunda or Temu kunci is a herb belonging to the Zingiberaceae family and wildly cultivated in Malaysia by rhizome. Temu kunci rhizome is commonly used in traditional medicines to cure stomach aches, promote appetite and gout. Due to its potential to be developed as one of Malaysia’s herbal products, information on their agronomic requirements is needed. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the different combination of the growing medium on B. rotunda growth and yield. Topsoil, peat moss, sand and chicken manure with four different ratios have been used as a planting medium. The potted plant was arranged in a randomised, complete block design with five replicates. The growth parameter was measured during harvesting time. The results showed that there was no significant difference in plant height, number of leaves, tiller number, fresh and dry shoot weight and fresh and dry root and rhizome weight in all treatments. It can be argued that this is because B. rotunda can be grown in different kinds of planting medium. Based on this study, it was suggested that topsoil be used for Temu Kunci planting, since it is easily obtained and requires less money.
Dragon fruit is a cactus species which is indigenous to Americas belongs to Genus Hylocereus. Dragon fruit is commonly known as Noble woman, Pitahaya, strawberry pear, Super fruit etc. It has antioxidant properties which prevents oxidation of cholesterol. Similarly, dragon fruit contains phytonutrient, minerals and vitamins which are beneficial to blood, tissue, bone and overall health. On research it was found out that Lycopene which is responsible for red colour in dragon fruit has been linked with a lower prostate cancer risk. Nowadays it is widely used in restaurant as fruit salad, refreshing drinks, Jams, Ice creams, Jelly, fruit juice, wine etc. In Nepal, Mr. Jagannath Rai brought dragon fruit from USA in 2057 B.S. and later Gorkha Millenium multipurpose cooperatives ltd formally started cultivation of dragon fruit in commercial level from 2070 B.S (2013 A.D). In Nepal there is a wide scope for cultivation as it can cultivate in region of less rainfall at altitude of 1500 from MASL. Availability of Fallow and marginal lands of Terai, Bhitri madhes, valleys and lower range of mountain are suitable for cultivation. Moreover, there are great possibilities of production of organic dragon fruits. Inspite of various benefits and possibilities, farmers’ condition and investment are major challenges for exploration of dragon fruit in Nepal.
The research was concerned with the enzymatic hydrolysis followed by alcoholic fermentation of corn flour. Commercial corn flour purchased from local market contained starch of 87.25%, moisture 11.86% and ash 0.70%. The kinetics of corn flour hydrolysis was performed at 50°C, 65°C and 80°C using commercial thermos table-∞-amylase and ∞-amyloglucosidase. During hydrolysis the residual starch content was decreased with increasing hydrolysis time. The line weaver- Burk plot for enzyme hydrolysis of corn starch for 2.5%, 5% and 10% flour solution showed a Km value of 2.46, 2.27 and 1.73 mg/ml and Vmax values 1.23, 1.21 and 0.96 U/ml for 50°C, 65°C and 80°C respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to detect the presence of dextrose in the hydrolyzates. The Rf (Retention factors) values showed that the starch was mainly composed of dextrose and depended on carrier solvent use for dextrose assessment. When 100% ethyl alcohol used as carrier solvent the Rf value was 0.72 and ethyl alcohol: ethyl acetate= 1:1 the Rf value was 0.65. Both corn flour solution and its enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with commercial baker’s yeast. Both the cases starch content was decreased and alcohol content was increased during hydrolysis and alcohol production was 3 times more from hydrolysates. The results obtained here will be useful for further research in the production of other value added products like white vinegar from the produced alcohol from con flour.
Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of the stored product insect that commonly found in Malaysia. The biological study through host range or food preferences of O. surinamensis is important for the development of sustainable management practice to control its infestation. The objective of this study was to identify the food preference of O. surinamensis to different plant products in relation to food type and moisture content. Twenty adult of O. surinamensis were exposed to three different group of food; dried fruits (date, raisin, apricot, fig), grain/cereals (rice, barley, oat grout, dried maize), and nuts (almond, ground nut, walnut, cashew nut) for 240h in laboratory Kulliyyah of Science, IIUM Kuantan. Moisture content in each food was also measured. It was found out that the most preferred food by O. surinamensis is oat groat of cereal grain group with medium level of moisture content. Further analysis on food moisture suggested that under current experimental conditions (temperature of 27℃ and 64% relative humidity within 240h of exposure), food moisture content does not affect pest infestation and distribution.