A field experiment was carried out in sub-tropical climate of Bhimdattanagar, Kanchanpur to assess the effect of site specific nutrient management approach in productivity of spring rice. The experiment was carried in single factor randomized completely block design with four replication, in four different farmer’s field, each farmers’ field as single replication. The seedlings were grown in the mat nursery bed and transplanted in the experimental plots with different nutrient management practices. Nutrient management practices were Site Specific Nutrient Management with Nutrient Expert dose (SSNMNE) (109:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Government recommendation dose (100:30:30kg NPK/ha +6 ton FYM), Farmer’s field practice (FFP)(different among farmers) with three omission plots viz. omission of Nitrogen (0:28:38 kg NPK/ha), Omission of Phosphorus (109:0:38 kg NPK/ha) and Omission of Potassium (109:28:0 kg NPK/ha). SSNM-NE dose was obtained by household survey in the respective area and using nutrient expert model. The growth parameters, yield, yield attributing traits and total cost of production were recorded. Data were analyzed using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) in Genstat. Result indicates that the highest grain yield (5.81 t/ha) was obtained from SSNM-NE which was statistically at par with government recommendation (5.54 t/ha). Similarly, thousand grains weight, straw yield in the experiment 23.20g, 6.90t/ha were significantly higher in SSNM-NE respectively. Straw yield, grain yield and thousand grain weight of SSNM-NE were found to be statistically at par with government recommendation. The economic analysis revealed that higher B: C ratio (1.91), net return and gross return were higher in SSNM-NE.
This review tends to analyze the importance of halal animal feed from the Islamic standpoint and describes the drawbacks of non-halal. Mischievousness to animal handling during production, transport, and slaughter in states where Islam is the main doctrine has created doubts about the quality of products. Islam is a religious conviction that illustrates empathy to animals and well-being of humankind food as mentioned in the holy book Qur’an and sayings of the Prophet Mohammed (PBUH). In a variety of animal-based halal food products, a Muslim should be conscious of not only about the rearing organization of the animals but also the slaughtering procedure. Animal feed is the preliminary Critical Control Point to establish the halal authenticity of animal-based food products. Regardless of the recognized agenda on animal feed in Middle East Asia, impurity in animal feed ingredients is still occurring and repetitively reported by the media. Feed inflicts direct effect on the animal originated feedstuffs like meat, milk, and eggs and it has been acknowledged as the foremost cause of diseases in both humans as well as animals. Consequently, any action that is associated with the production of livestock must be intimately explored to spot any vulnerability with liable Islamic laws of food and hit upon those traditions to avoid them. The intent of this review is to appraise the halal nutritional system of animals and see whether it has any optimistic or depressing effects on the health of the customers. Our advancement will be comprehensive as we have focused on the socio-religious aspects of human health. The verdict of this review could be made as an orientation by the policymakers of emerging officially authorized business bodies for producing, importing and auction of halal animal feed according to Islamic set of guidelines.
The discovery of an adaptive immune system especially in archae and bacteria, CRISPR/Cas has revolutionized the field of agriculture and served as a potential gene editing tool, producing great excitement to the molecular scientists for the improved genetic manipulations. CRISPR/Cas9 is a RNA guided endonuclease which is popular among its predecessors ZFN and TALEN’s. The utilities of CRISPR from its predecessors is the use of short RNA fragments to locate target and breaking the double strands which avoids the need of protein engineering, thus allowing time efficiency measure for gene editing. It is a simple, flexible and highly efficient programmable DNA cleavage system that can be modified for widespread applications like knocking out the genes, controlling transcription, modifying epigenomes, controlling genome-wide screens, modifying genes for disease and stress tolerance and imaging chromosomes. However, gene cargo delivery system, off target cutting and issues on the safety of living organisms imposes major challenge to this system. Several attempts have been done to rectify these challenges; using sgRNA design software, cas9 nickases and other mutants. Thus, further addressing these challenges may open the avenue for CRISPR/cas9 for addressing the agriculture related problems.
The research was conducted from January 2019 to June 2019 to study the fish production and marketing system in fish zone, Rupandehi. Altogether 95 respondents including 27 small farmers, 35 medium farmers and 33 large farmers were selected for household survey using simple random sampling for the study. Statistical tools, Ms- excel and SPSS of version 23 were used for data analysis. From the study, it was evident that, six species of carps of fingerlings size were stocked with high average number of common carps (3885.5/ha.) followed by silver carp (3880.5/ha). The average production of fish species was 6.06ton/ha which is slightly higher than the national average. The observed data revealed that, marketing of major quantity of fish was from on farm sale i.e. 55.78% followed by local market sale (18.94%), live fish sale in retailers (5.26%). Similarly, percentage of farmers selling fish to wholesaler, consumers, retailers and neighbours were 63.3%, 30.5%, 26.5% and 26.3% respectively. Cost and returns analysis showed average B/C ratio of 2.13. Problem ranking using 5 point scale value showed high cost of feed as the most serious problem with index value of 0.94 in the study area.
Dragon fruit is a cactus species which is indigenous to Americas belongs to Genus Hylocereus. Dragon fruit is commonly known as Noble woman, Pitahaya, strawberry pear, Super fruit etc. It has antioxidant properties which prevents oxidation of cholesterol. Similarly, dragon fruit contains phytonutrient, minerals and vitamins which are beneficial to blood, tissue, bone and overall health. On research it was found out that Lycopene which is responsible for red colour in dragon fruit has been linked with a lower prostate cancer risk. Nowadays it is widely used in restaurant as fruit salad, refreshing drinks, Jams, Ice creams, Jelly, fruit juice, wine etc. In Nepal, Mr. Jagannath Rai brought dragon fruit from USA in 2057 B.S. and later Gorkha Millenium multipurpose cooperatives ltd formally started cultivation of dragon fruit in commercial level from 2070 B.S (2013 A.D). In Nepal there is a wide scope for cultivation as it can cultivate in region of less rainfall at altitude of 1500 from MASL. Availability of Fallow and marginal lands of Terai, Bhitri madhes, valleys and lower range of mountain are suitable for cultivation. Moreover, there are great possibilities of production of organic dragon fruits. Inspite of various benefits and possibilities, farmers’ condition and investment are major challenges for exploration of dragon fruit in Nepal.
The research was concerned with the enzymatic hydrolysis followed by alcoholic fermentation of corn flour. Commercial corn flour purchased from local market contained starch of 87.25%, moisture 11.86% and ash 0.70%. The kinetics of corn flour hydrolysis was performed at 50°C, 65°C and 80°C using commercial thermos table-∞-amylase and ∞-amyloglucosidase. During hydrolysis the residual starch content was decreased with increasing hydrolysis time. The line weaver- Burk plot for enzyme hydrolysis of corn starch for 2.5%, 5% and 10% flour solution showed a Km value of 2.46, 2.27 and 1.73 mg/ml and Vmax values 1.23, 1.21 and 0.96 U/ml for 50°C, 65°C and 80°C respectively. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to detect the presence of dextrose in the hydrolyzates. The Rf (Retention factors) values showed that the starch was mainly composed of dextrose and depended on carrier solvent use for dextrose assessment. When 100% ethyl alcohol used as carrier solvent the Rf value was 0.72 and ethyl alcohol: ethyl acetate= 1:1 the Rf value was 0.65. Both corn flour solution and its enzymatic hydrolysates were fermented with commercial baker’s yeast. Both the cases starch content was decreased and alcohol content was increased during hydrolysis and alcohol production was 3 times more from hydrolysates. The results obtained here will be useful for further research in the production of other value added products like white vinegar from the produced alcohol from con flour.
Oryzaephilus surinamensis is one of the stored product insect that commonly found in Malaysia. The biological study through host range or food preferences of O. surinamensis is important for the development of sustainable management practice to control its infestation. The objective of this study was to identify the food preference of O. surinamensis to different plant products in relation to food type and moisture content. Twenty adult of O. surinamensis were exposed to three different group of food; dried fruits (date, raisin, apricot, fig), grain/cereals (rice, barley, oat grout, dried maize), and nuts (almond, ground nut, walnut, cashew nut) for 240h in laboratory Kulliyyah of Science, IIUM Kuantan. Moisture content in each food was also measured. It was found out that the most preferred food by O. surinamensis is oat groat of cereal grain group with medium level of moisture content. Further analysis on food moisture suggested that under current experimental conditions (temperature of 27℃ and 64% relative humidity within 240h of exposure), food moisture content does not affect pest infestation and distribution.
Due to growing population, there is an increasing demand of rice production but its productivity is lessened day by day. Aromatic rice has a great demand during festivals in many countries. Kalijira is one of them not only Bangladesh but also all over the world due to its attractive flavor, fine grain and good taste which is generally used to prepare dishes in different special occasions. But there are some limitations to cultivate aromatic rice Such as lack of high yielding variety, fine grain quality, disease or pest resistant, stress and salt tolerance variety and proper cultural management. To overcome this problem tissue culture can be used. However, the lack of a simple and efficient protocol for callus induction in this cereal crop. In this study we tried to find out the potentiality of aromatic rice variety named kalijira for callus induction from mature embryo and to find out the suitable concentration of 2, 4-D for callus induction and proliferation. The highest callus induction were observed when the media was supplemented with 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and the frequency of callus induction was lowest in 0.5 mg/L concentration of 2, 4-D. This study will be useful for selecting suitable concentration of growth regulator (2, 4-D) for callus induction in future that will be useful for not only national but also international plant breeders.
A total of 25 garlic (Allium sativum L.) germplasm were collected from different location of Bangladesh and also from different countries of the world. Each germplasm was planted in each plot of 1m2 at the Allium Field Laboratory, Horticulture Farm, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. This study was conducted during October, 2010 to March, 2011 in the field, using randomized complete block design with three replications. All germplasm were characterized on number of leaves, height of plant, leaf length, fresh weight of leaf, dry weight of leaf, number of cloves per bulb, length and diameter of bulb, fresh weight of bulb, dry weight of bulb, yield per plot and yield per hectare. Analyses of variances showed that garlic germplasm with different origins were significantly different for all characters. Different germplasm resulted better performances but germplasm G49 from Vietnam gave the highest results in respect of number of leaves per plant (10.63), leaf length (43.57 cm), fresh leaf weight (92.47g), dry leaf weight (6.13g), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), total number of cloves per bulb (42.13), bulb diameter (4.13cm), fresh weight of bulb (21.37g), dry weight of bulb (5.73g) and yield (9.83 t/ha) which could help future researchers in garlic selection program and improvement of yield.
Among all cancers, breast cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in women and the second most common cancer overall, both in the developed and less developed country. It is a matter of concern worldwide, that there is no effective drug is available for cancer treatment. Although, Surgery, radiation, hormonal (anti-estrogen) therapy, and chemotherapy are being used for treatment of breast cancer in recent years, due to life threatening side effects, these treatment approaches becoming more vulnerable. However, researchers from across the world searching a safe and effective treatment approach that can be a breakthrough for this situation, as it is evident that natural compounds like shikonin from Lithospermum erythrorhizon can fight against aggressiveness of breast cancer by regulating apoptosis, necroptosis and estrogen receptor signaling pathway. In this review, we discussed about potential green chemical compounds with their mechanisms of actions, which can be very effective treatment regimen for breast cancer and can be more potent by their proper modifications and further molecular research. Hopefully in future, research focusing on the “shikonin” will open a new door for increasing the survival rate of breast cancer patients as well as cancer cure.