Our paper reviews research studies that have investigated interventions aimed at prejudice reduction. The theories and research results are summarized in the following categories: intergroup contact, social identity, and categorization. The intergroup contact approach inspired such techniques as contact hypothesis, jigsaw classroom, Pettigrew’s model, contact with transgression, and imagined intergroup contact hypothesis; while social identity gave the ground for common ingroup identity and crossed categorization theories. We place special emphasis on methods applicable for a school setting, and try to answer the questions: when, why and under which condition will a given method work.
Michał Gacek, Władysława Pilecka and Agnieszka Fusińska-Korpik
The Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC) is a measure which allows one to assess children’s self-concept. Our article presents this instrument’s psychometric properties within a Polish sample. In our study we tested 432 elementary school students and 14 form teachers. As validity indicators we used the Teacher’s Rating Scale of Child’s Actual Behavior (TRS) and the average school grade for the previous semester. The Polish version of SPPC yielded good psychometric properties. The instrument’s factorial structure paralleled the structure of the original version. Reliability was high both in terms of internal consistency and test-retest results. Scale validity was confirmed in the correlational analysis. Boys scored higher than girls in the Physical Appearance and Global Self-Worth subscales but lower in the Behavioral Conduct subscale. Younger children scored higher than older children in the Scholastic Competence, Physical Appearance, and Global Self-Worth subscales. Judgments on children’s physical appearance were the best predictor of their global self-worth.
The Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire was designed to measure sexual satisfaction. It consists of 10 items. The results of several studies have supported the Questionnaire as psychometrically sound and valid. It may be a valuable tool for measuring one’s attitude (both cognitively and emotionally) to their own sexual activity.
Our article presents a comprehensive overview of studies on colour from the perspective of applied psychology and social sciences. It discusses major findings from the psychology of colour applied to marketing, business, politics and sports as well as to problems connected with using color tests in psychological diagnoses. Moreover, we present an overview of particularly interesting colour studies on synaesthesia related to cognitive and applied psychology as well as psycholinguistics. Finally, we discuss the most recent trends in investigations into applied colour psychology as well as potential directions for further research.
Our research aim was to answer whether temperament traits could predict the anxiety experienced by osteoarthritis patients before and after arthroplasty; we analyzed if coping styles moderated the relationship between temperament and perioperative anxiety, and examined the fluctuation of perceived stress and anxiety.
In the longitudinal study (N=61, mean age 70.9) we measured temperament traits (EAS-A), coping styles (Brief-COPE) and changes of perceived anxiety (STAI) and stress (PSS-10), before and after arthroplasty.
Anxiety and stress decreased significantly after the surgery. Temperament correlated with the anxiety state. Positive correlates were anger, negative affectivity, and fear while negative correlates included sociability and vigor. Regression analyses indicated the predictors of preoperative anxiety which included vigor and negative affectivity. The regression model for the variation of postsurgical anxiety indicated that negative affectivity explained the variance of this variable (R2=0.57). Moderation analyses confirmed that the temperament and anxiety relationship depended on: active coping, acceptance and planning.
Vulnerable patients with temperamental emotionality and ineffective coping report heightened perioperative anxiety, while effective coping moderates the temperament and anxiety relationship.
The study was undertaken to identify intergenerational transmission in the patterns of early adulthood developmental tasks, with particular emphasis on parenthood. We attempted to explain how intergenerational values are transmitted to young adults when they become parents and how they realize those parental values that are expected of them. The study was performed on 109 three-generation families, N=407 persons. The results illustrated the diversity of intergenerational transmission, depending on a certain cohort’s sex and membership. Women were found to be more susceptible to transmitting family models.
This article develops a new measure for assessing leadership styles. A six-factor solution was identified in exploratory factor analysis (n = 139) and then was verified in confirmatory factor analysis (n = 477). The final questionnaire encompasses 51 items grouped into six dimensions: structuring, autocratic, participative, Machiavellian, rewarding, and distant. The scales’ internal consistency range from.61 to.79. Internal validity was initially supported by intercorrelations among six leadership styles. External validity was verified through correlation analysis between leadership styles and personality traits of the Costa & McCrae (1995) five-factor model.
The Sociopolitical Control Scale (SPCS) measures psychological empowerment at the intrapersonal level. It comprises two subscales - leadership competence (LC) and policy control (PC). Adapting SPCS to Polish cultural conditions required measuring the translation, checking comprehension of items and establishing reliability and validity. Reliability and convergent validity are sufficient enough for this measure to be used in psychological research. Confirmatory Factor Analysis lets us assume that SPCS is an appropriate measure, and the Polish scale factorial structure resembles the factorial structure of the original version. Since Poland is a socio-demographically homogeneous country, our research is significant for cross-cultural comparisons, despite a non-representative sample (n = 469). The Polish version of SPCS was developed to be used in research on the social involvement of a political, religious and humanitarian nature.
Dariusz Kuncewicz, Kinga Lachowicz-Tabaczek and Jacek Załuski
The purpose of this review was to come closer to answering the question why insight gained in psychotherapy does not necessarily lead to a change in patient’s behaviour. The review of literature on the subject of insight allowed us to distinguish two types of insight: “more intellectual than emotional” (I-e) and “more emotional than intellectual” (E-i). In addition, we differentiated E-i insight with a component of negative emotions (aversive) and with a component of positive emotions (corrective). We assumed that each type of insight would motivate the patient to change their behaviour in a different way. The I-e insight makes it easier for the patient to achieve concrete adaptive goals, the E-i aversive insight discourages them from attaining maladaptive goals, while the E-i corrective insight encourages them to form and follow adaptive goals. We also analysed the influence on behaviour change of some other factors, co-occurring with insight: the therapeutic relationship, the actions of the patient and his narrative motivation. Insight does not always lead to a change in behaviour because: 1) the type of the insight does not match the type of patient’s motivation; 2) insight occurs in the context of a weak therapeutic relationship or is not reinforced by the patient’s actions; 3) insight is not a key factor of change, but rather its effect or indicator.