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Self-Employment Among North Korean Migrants

Abstract

In the absence of concrete ethnic differences, the division of a single Korean nation into two opposing states has led to the creation of specific types of nationhood and state building. This pseudo-ethnicity, which marks North Korean immigrants as “other” to South Koreans, results in adaptation problems and cultural difficulties. As the sociological literature considers self-employment of minorities and immigrants to be an important avenue for upward economic mobility, this paper focuses on North Korean new settlers who have established their own businesses in South Korea. By case study analysis, it was revealed that new settlers and official organisations have highly differing perceptions on the issue of North Korean self-employment. Public authorities try to discourage North Koreans from becoming self-employed, which is why a comprehensive economic support programme is lacking. However, it was discerned that a new generation of new settlers is growing, showing high motivation and entrepreneurial spirit. The result of this study showed that a tailored support programme for self-employed North Koreans, such as an adapted form of social enterprises, is needed.

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Sino-Japanese Relations and the Potential for Militarised Conflict in the Twenty-First Century

Abstract

The People’s Republic of China and Japan have been at odds with each other for over a century. Their modern relationship was shaped by imperialism, territorial disputes, and two wars. With the end of the bipolar power structure of the Cold War, both nations are vying for regional leadership. The unresolved territorial dispute over the Senkaku/Diàoyú Islands (Senkaku shotō 尖閣諸島/ Diàoyúdǎo jí qí fùshǔ dǎoyǔ 钓岛及其附属岛屿) in the East China Sea serves as a constant catalyst for clashes between both powers and seems to be pushing towards a violent eruption. Thus, this paper assesses the risk of an interstate war between China and Japan in the twenty-first century. By employing the Steps to War theory, each step nations usually take before engaging in war, it will be analysed in order to see how far the brewing Sino-Japanese conflict has developed. This paper aims at answering the questions of the current risk of war, whether there is a palpable shift towards conflict escalation during the twenty-first century, and if so, identifying the main drivers for this development and ascertaining whether threats to stability are currently increasing or decreasing.

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Albanian Insurance Market Analyses and their Business Model

Abstract

The insurance market in Albania has been started to operate in the last years of centralized socialist system. It was represented by state insurance Company INSIG. It was the first important segment of the financial market to develop faster once Albania entered into the free market economy model on the last decade of the past century. It is the largest and most advanced market in non-banking financial sector. Together with investment funds, pension funds securities markets those are under the supervision of Albanian Financial Supervision Authority, not Central Bank. The insurance market, has had a lot development and positive growth in terms of wide range of products offer and the geographically expansion all over the country and in some neighboring countries in the Balkan region where Albanian population live. This potential is based on the favorable economic conditions, improved regulatory and supervisory system, low market penetration rate, as well as, on business community and population, which are dynamic and easily adaptable. The Insurance Industry has been undergoing dramatic changes during the last ten years. This industry can help the business companies and other entities on having economic and financial support, mitigating their risks and losses as well from natural disasters or other uncertainties. This sector can give a good support on social development and financial contribution on economy by reducing the risk of future losses. There are a lot of empirical research based on financial analyses of Albanian Insurance Companies in which you can see a causal relationship between insurance sector effects in economic growth by bearing risk on business investment. The study of qualitative and quantitative information on Main Insurance Company in Albania, their business model and risk drivers shows the development stage and challenges and steps needs to be in line with EU directives. Incorporation of international best practices combined with an efficient regulatory and supervisory approach will certainly play a very big role in the non-banking financial market development and growth.

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Applying Simulation for Oil and Gas Industry Case Albpetrol Company

Abstract

The overall subject for this paper is to enlarge our understanding of simulation behavior while working in investment projects, taking as example the Albpetrol oil production company. An understanding of simulation behavior is essential, since human resources should be regarded as competitive strengths for organizations competing in an international market. The objective of this evaluation is to understand if this investment project has a good chance to be implemented, and to be undertaken as a project, or if the chances are lower. Taking into accountant the importance of oil and gas industry today we should offer the better conditions and better services in order to survive the competition and this is possible if we are doing a good research. For years the company has taken into consideration the possibility of drilling new wells, serving in the existing deposits where it is carrying out its activity. for this purpose, all the data on these deposits have been analyzed and studied, and it has already been concluded that Albpetrol could launch new wells in the fields such as Cakran-Mollaj, Amonice and Patos-Marinze.

Open access
Digitization of Educational Technology Centres for Teaching Electrical and Electronics Technology in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the level of digitization of Educational Technology Centres for teaching electrical and electronics technology in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria in order to provide information that will help solve problems of incompetence of public school students in Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The study, guided by two research questions and two hypotheses was conducted in six Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria using descriptive survey research design. The sample of the study was 50 comprising of 15 non-teaching Educational Technology Centres staff and 35 Electrical and Electronics Technology lecturers from five colleges of education in North Eastern Nigeria. Checklist containing 103 expected digital facilities based on National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) minimum standard for Educational Technology Facilities in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria was used as instrument for data collection. Respondents were required to fill in observed facilities in the required column. Arithmetic percentage and Chi–square test of goodness-of-fit and were used determine the extent of digitization of the Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria. Findings of the study revealed among others that analog technologies has higher number of frequency counts compared to digital technologies, hence there was low digitization of hardware facilities in Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria were not digitized for instructional purposes; therefore, Government should digitize Educational Technology Centres in Colleges of Education in North Eastern Nigeria by adequately providing both digital hard and soft ware facilities.

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Energy Consumption Modeling in the Western Balkan Countries Using a Top-Down Approach

Abstract

This paper investigates the relationships between energy consumption and GDP growth for 6 Western Balkan countries over 10 years period from 2005 to 2014. The countries under consideration are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, FYR. The aim of this study is to evaluate the energy demand across time and within these countries. The other variables that are considered in the model are the Electricity use per capita, the Oil price referred to Crude Oil International markets price expressed in USD and the exchange rate. Recently, numerous empirical studies have been conducted to detect this relationship, but not specifically to the Western Balkan region. There are general characteristics, due to the common historical background, but also specific patterns of the economic structure shaping the energy demand of each country. The main approaches to energy demand modeling are the Bottom-up and Top Down approaches. Currently important research is conveying also toward the Hybrid models. The demand in this countries is very susceptible to external oscillations, leading to severe exogenous impacts on the long term equilibrium, fitting more towards a top down macroeconometric model.

Open access
Essential Elements of the Franchise Contract and the Advantages of Implementation in the Albanian Market

Abstract

The franchise contract was a type of contract used frequently in trading during the Middle Ages. However, for almost a century, this contract is being used by business law entities, which want to enter the business and have a bigger profit. Regardless of the technical-legislative elements or special features of the parties’ juridical-civil relationship, franchising contract is a form of business. It is considered to be one of the easiest contracts in civilian use by different persons, not only about the innovations provided from the commercial aspect, but also as a reflection of modernity and the progress in trading.The franchise contract is a concept envisioned by Albanian legislation, but practically it has been implemented rarely and not in line with current domestic market requirements. In these conditions, its application has provided disputes between the signatory subjects. For this reason, the essence of this work will be not only the legal-civilian understanding of the franchise contract, but also the way this contract is implemented in Albania. The study will be based on the use of the analytical method of advantages that the franchise contract application aims to produce by referring to its legal-civilian analysis. We also aim to use the comparative method of implementation of this contract in Western countries. This study will present the advantages that the franchise contract produces b from the civil law aspect, in view of its practical implementation by the contracting parties. This study aims to move forward in a more in-depth analysis of the franchise contract in the Albanian reality and the shortcomings that this contract presents, in relation to the most developed countries. Also, franchising does not operates only through a simple, typical contract, but transforms and is transformed in a variety of ways, which should be analyzed so that to point out and reveal the product of franchising and the benefits it brings to the contracting parties.

Open access
Extreme Value of Intraday Returns

Abstract

The aim of this research paper is to study the properties of intraday returns, in a time range from one to fifteen minutes. In order to perform this analysis, we consider four sets of historical intraday returns for FTSE-MIB index. The first series consist of intraday returns with one-minute frequency, represented in log scale, which includes the period from 01.04.2011 till 30.09.2011. The consideration period for the other series does not vary, but the frequencies which we calculate the returns with, do. In detail, we took in consideration returns generated in 1, 5, 10 and 15 minutes. First, the study analyses the distribution of intraday returns by employing both graphical methods and moments calculation on different time scales. Secondly, the study analyses the returns maximum distribution on different time scales, checking the type GEV (Generalized Extreme value) returns distribution goodness of fit. The GEV parameters estimation was made by maximum likelihood using EVIM1 toolbox in Matlab.

Open access
Information Technology Inhibitors and Information Quality in Supply Chain Management: A PLS-SEM Analysis

Abstract

The development of information technology has simplified the exchange of information between different parts of the supply chain. Information quality plays an important role in enhancing supply chain performance. The aim of this research was to explore the relationships between SCM-IT inhibitors, IT enablers, information sharing, and information quality in supply chain management. Data for 183 business units operating in Vlore, Albania during 2017 were analyzed. Direct and mediating or indirect effects were also analyzed. The data were analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), an advanced statistical technique with the help of Smart-PLS version 3.2.7. PLS algorithm was used to determine the factor loadings and path coefficients in the theoretical model. The study has concluded that SCM-IT inhibitors have a negative and significant effect on information quality; the mediation effect of information sharing was significant, the mediation effect of IT enablers was significant; however, the multiple mediation effects of IT enablers and information sharing was not significant. These findings are useful for top management and IT specialists of the business units, and also for information technology services and products providers.

Open access
An Overview of the Main Phenomena and Trends that Accompanied the Development of Higher Education (1990-2013)

Abstract

This is now a well known axiom, that to judge the level of emancipation of a particular society, one should know the extent of her education. Because of the system’s nature, Albanian and foreign historiography has not been tackling a lot with the problems of higher education after 1990, seeing it from the perspective of the interests of the Albanian democratic state anyway, in terms of the transition, although with difficulties, efforts to change were not interrupted. The transition from totalitarianism to pluralist democracy and a free market economy also raised the issue of a radical change in the education field, a radical restructure, a radical democratic reform throughout work and life. Everything that happened after this period, especially in higher education, destroyed the “foundations” of the traditional high school influence by marxism-leninism, paving the way to new decentralized changes to achieve the highest quality indicators, through the step by step perfection of the university documentation, and efforts for the preparation of specialists, who are able to have direct access in manufacturing as well. The transformation of higher education began when our country was undergoing the transition period. In this study we will focus on the general analysis of the efforts of the Albanian government in front of incomplete standards in the higher educational system, reorganization of the school, in the framework of the change of the political system and the tranformation of socio-economic in Albania. Then it will be elaborated the intensity of changes and the results that are obviously noticed from one stage to the other, also some aspects of the reorganization process and the consolidation of higher education.

Open access