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Wind Tunnel Tests of Influence of Boosters and Fins on Aerodynamic Characteristics of the Experimental Rocket Platform

Abstract

The paper presents results of wind tunnel tests of the Experimental Rocket Platform (ERP), which is developed in Institute of Aviation. It is designed as an easy accessible and affordable platform for microgravity experiments. Proposed design enables to perform experiments in microgravity for almost 150 seconds with apogee of about 100 km.

The full-scale model of the ERP has been investigated in the T-3 wind tunnel in Institute of Aviation. During the investigation, the aerodynamic loads of the rocket has been measured for the angle of attack up to 10° and the different rotation angle around the longitudinal axis (up to 90°, depending on the configuration). Three configurations has been investigated:

• without fins and boosters

• with fins and without boosters

• with fins and boosters

Additionally, the measurements of velocity field around the ERP using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been performed.

Based on the wind tunnel test, an influence of fins and boosters on aerodynamic characteristics of the rocket has been described. Results of the wind tunnel tests show relatively high contribution of boosters in total aerodynamic drag. Some conclusions concerning performance and stability of the rocket have been presented.

Open access
Individual Autonomous Navigation System

Abstract

The article presents the Individual Autonomous System Navigation (IANS) supporting–rescuer or firemen in terms of navigation. Basic assumptions, which such a system has to fulfill in terms of functionality and accuracy, are presented. The concept of the ISAN system is based on the implementation of inertial navigation system which the only one to permit fully autonomous functioning. Measurement sensors of the navigation system with microprocessor board are placed in the rescuer’s shoe. To limit the escalation of the navigation errors value, which in the case of inertial navigation rises exponentially, a procedure of navigation parameters upgrading at every step of the rescuer is introduced to the proposed system. This procedure guarantees the required accuracy of navigation achievement. The article describes a developed and manufactured demonstrator of the technology and presents main results of its research. The research conducted in a building consisted in walking on the same level several hundred meters in less than 10 minutes. A walking test with a change of walking height was also performed in order to estimate the accuracy of the vertical channel. Results of the demonstrator’s tests let us conclude that the error of navigation is below 1% of the travelled distance and the accuracy is linear in respect to time. The achieved accuracy is fully sufficient for a practical IANS application.

Open access
Infrared Signature Suppression Systems in Modern Military Helicopters

Abstract

Helicopters play an important role in air-to-ground fire covering and the short-distance air-to-air fights, as well as the anti-tank missions and battlefield force transferring. The detection and survivability of helicopters on a battlefield significantly depends on their infrared emissions level, as well as the methods, equipment and systems used by potential enemy. The automatic detection systems, recognition and identification of flying objects use among other the thermo-detection methods, which rely on detecting the infrared radiation emitted by the tracked object. Furthermore, due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in a helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. In order to increase the combat effectiveness and survivability of military helicopters, several different types of the infrared suppressor (IRS) have been developed. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular examples of the infrared signature suppression systems.

Open access
Manufacturing and Testing of Carbon Composite Samples Intended for Aviation

Abstract

The paper presents the manufacturing technology and quality control of samples made of composite materials intended, inter alia, for aircraft elements. The samples are made from carbon fiber reinforced prepreg in a polymer matrix which is commonly used in the aerospace industry. The authors described the dimensional requirements for samples made of composite materials for strength testing, and the main stages of production which have a direct impact on the quality of composite samples. Also presented is the technological process of producing flat carbon composite panels for composite samples, cutting the produced panels with a CNC plotter, cutting the samples on a conventional milling machine, and surface treatment of the samples on a surface grinder. The machining parameters that were experientially found to be optimal for the milling and grinding of carbon samples are specified as well. Finally, the method of quality control of the ready composite samples is described and solutions are presented to improve the production of high-quality samples.

Open access
Measuring and Testing the Parameters of a Battery Pack Designed for Powering Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Various Temperatures

Abstract

This paper describes results of tests dedicated to studying – in simulated environmental conditions – operation of a battery pack designed for powering unmanned aircraft systems. In particular, the tests concerned determining the electrical parameters of battery packs, with and without radiators, during their operation in changing environmental conditions and resistance to large temperature fluctuations. Amicell, a high density lithium polymer battery manufactured by the Israeli Amit Industries ltd., was selected for testing. The test results present characteristics of the batteries tested in different temperatures and allow for designing and trying out proper battery protections against environmental conditions, with the intention to attain continuous and correct operation. The tests have been carried out in the accredited Environmental Test Laboratory which is part of the Department of Avionics of the Institute of Aviation in Poland.

Open access
Particle-In-Cell Electrostatic Numerical Algorithm

Abstract

Existing global models of interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the local interstellar medium (LISM) describe the heliosphere that arises as a result of this interaction. There is a strong motivation to develop a kinetic model using the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method to describe phenomena which appear in the heliosphere. This is however a long term scientific goal. This paper describes an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell numerical model developed in the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, which includes mechanical and charge exchange collisions between particles in the probabilistic manner using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. This is the first step into developing simulations of the heliosphere incorporating kinetic effects in collisionless plasmas. In this paper we focus only on presenting the work, which have been done on the numerical PIC algorithm.

Open access
Temperature Measurements in the Detonation Chamber Supplied by Air from Centrifugal Compressor and Gaseous Hydrogen

Abstract

In this paper, the experimental results of a detonation chamber fed by air from a centrifugal compressor are presented. The detonation chamber was equipped with many different sensors, mostly thermocouples, which were placed in 11 different positions. The distribution of temperature changes along the chamber and radial temperature profile at the outlet are provided. The results here confirm the existence of high mixture stratification. Such mixture stratifications and temperature profiles may be used as an additional chamber wall cooling method. The experiments performed, address key issues regarding the chamber choking problem caused by turbines. The relationship between the turbine performance and detonation chamber are crucial for proper control of turbine jet engine.

Open access
Considerations on the Benefits of Using Recyclable Materials for Road Construction

Abstract

A current worldwide economy problem includes both the responsible management of the planet's non-renewable resources and the waste management. The benefits of using recyclable materials and recycling technologies with asphalt mixtures consist mainly of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. It is well known that oil (from which bitumen is obtained) is a non-renewable resource, hence the its price increase. Therefore, at present, the world is looking for solutions that will lead to a better use of natural resources and to an economic integration of sub-products from various industries. This paper intends to raise awareness of the possibilities for asphalt mixtures recycling and of the recyclable materials that can be used as additives with benefits of each.

Open access
Dynamic Test of a Viaduct on the Orastie–Sibiu Highway

Abstract

Dynamic testing of bridges has as target to establish their response on pulse forces between the wheels and unevenness of road surface. Generally, during the tests, real time accelerations or deformations are to be measured and which through successive processing methods lead to other data as velocities, displacements, dynamic impact factor, but also the damping ratio. In order to validate the bridge response following testing, the measured data are compared both with allowable limits existing in standards and with the results obtained using analytical or numerical models.

In Romania, the dynamic testing of bridges is recommended by the current standards, only for important bridges, erected in complex or special solutions and also for large span bridges.

The aim of this paper is to outline the results obtained from the on-site measurements during dynamic testing of a viaduct placed on the motorway A1, sector Orăştie-Sibiu. The bridge superstructure is a composite one, continuous girder on 12 spans: 40+10×60+40 m, the substructure consisting in 11 piers with lamellar elevations and variable height in the range 8.50-24m.

In the paper a finite element model is also presented which was used for time-history analyses using an impulse type load. Finally, the results obtained on the site and using the numerical model are compared and discussed.

Open access
Flexible Pavement Design Criterion Based on Octahedral Shear Stresses

Abstract

The judicious pavement design is the key factor in achieving the longest service life and the lowest maintenance and rehabilitation costs. It is based on the consideration of the phenomena in which the pavement structures are subjected to exploitation and the limitation of their destructive effects.

The aim of this study is to verify the possibility of implementing in the flexible pavement structures design practice of another design criterion based on limiting the bituminous mixtures creep phenomenon and that to be called: The criterion of admissible octahedral shear stresses in the bituminous layers.

Estimation of octahedral shear stresses is done with a calculation model based on finite element method, and hereafter referred to as 2D ASFEM (2D Axi-Symmetric Finite Element Model). The paper presents the results obtained by modeling several specific calculation assumptions for the behaviour of flexible pavement structures in service.

The study underlines the fact that the Octahedral Shear Stresses Ratio (OSSR) can be an additional design criterion to be taken into account when designing flexible pavement structures alongside other established criteria.

Open access