Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) infection can induce host cells to produce numerous cytokines. Cytokines play important roles in inflammatory response. Although inflammation can protect the body, persistent inflammation can lead to pathological changes and tissue damages. Further research should determine whether cytokine production directly affects development and outcomes of inflammation. This study summarizes Ct infection and related cytokines.
Acute phase protein (APP) is a type of special protein closely related to infection inflammation. In recent years, a large number of studies have shown that multiple positive and negative APPs, including C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, procalcitonin, haptoglobin, alpha1 acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin, fibrinogen, prealbumin, leptin, albumin, and plasma fibronectin, are significantly correlated to infectious inflammation and that this method is more accurate and reliable than somatic cell test, erythrocyte sedimentation rate test, enzyme activity and content change test, and the like. Therefore, APP could be used as an infectious inflammation marker.
Interleukin (IL)-12 family is a group of cytokines composed of heterogeneous molecules and whose members include IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and IL-35. IL-12 family bridges natural and adaptive immune responses and especially plays a significant role in classical adaptive immune process participated by TH1, TH17, and Treg cells. Members of IL-12 family participate in adaptive immune responses via the Janus kinase-signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling pathway by sharing some subunits and receptors. IL-12 features an extremely complex regulatory network. During resistance of microbial infection, IL-12 and IL-23 mainly show inflammatory effects, whereas IL-27 and IL-35 commonly show antiinflammatory effects. This study reviews advances in studies related to IL-12 family members and infectious diseases and provides references to further reveal functions of IL-12 family members in occurrence and development of infectious diseases.
Purpose: This study aims to gain insights into occupational exposure of medical staff to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to provide effective precautionary measures to protect them against risks arising from blood-borne pathogens.
Methodology: Data on 46 confirmed HIV-infected patients were analyzed statistically.
Results: Medical staff were exposed to blood-borne pathogens in 45 cases, and most were female and probationary nurses. Risks of occupational exposure of medical staff to HIV increased continuously as more HIV-infected patients were admitted by hospitals each year.
Conclusion: Medical staff should receive information about HIV blood-borne pathogen infection of patients, shorten the window period for HIV exposure, and practice specified precautionary measures and cut down risks of exposure to HIV.
Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) is a definite respiratory pathogen affecting people of all ages. This organism is adsorbed on host cell surface through extreme adherent organelles, generating peroxide ions and possible exotoxins. Mp may directly invade host cells and cause latent infections. Induced immunoreactive injury is one of the main factors resulting in clinical symptoms of Mp infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and serological detection should be combined for diagnosis of Mp infection when nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal specimens are simultaneously obtained and detected by PCR. The most reliable basis for diagnosis can be obtained with two serological tests in different courses of the disease. Culture methods also bear significance in diagnosing Mp infections and in vitro drug sensitivity tests.
IgG4-related disease is a systemic autoimmune disease with unknown cause and involves multiple organs and tissues. This disease became one of research hotspots in the last ten years. IgG4-related Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) exhibits unique clinical pathological characteristics: serum-free thyroxine reduction and increases in thyroid peroxidase antibody and IgG4; massive IgG4-positive plasmocyte infiltration in tissues; significant matrix fibrosis; and severe degeneration of thyroid follicular epithelium. IgG4-related HT is a subtype of HT; it presents relatively good therapeutic effect after thyroxine treatment. Cortical hormones can be used for IgG4 HT patients who may suffer from hypothyroidism with significant thyroid injury during early stage to constrain immune injury. This thesis summarizes clinical and pathological histology of IgG4-related HT based on its characteristics.
In recent years, in treatment standardization of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), infections and serious complications became the leading cause of death related to this disease, exceeding those of renal involvement and lupus encephalopathy. SLE coinfection is mainly related to defects in humoral immunity and cellular immunity, SLE disease activity, and doses of hormone and immune inhibitors.
In recent years, many scholars conducted in-depth research on Helicobacter pylori and identified it as an important pathogen of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. H. pylori also causes also and contributes to precancerous lesions (atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia) and is closely related to occurrence and development of gastric adenocarcinoma and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoma. This study summarizes biological characteristics, epidemic status, and infection route of H. pylori and reviews research on roles of natural environments, especially drinking water, during infection.
We present a case of cutaneous abscess with Nocardia cyriacigeorgica in a diabetic patient, and review the published work. This patient had infectious abscess on his left lower thigh and the right lower abdomen. The isolated organism was identified by DNA amplification and sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA. After incision and drainage, the clinical application empirically used linezolid and SMZCo took effect.
Chao Wen, Xiaoyu Wang, Taisheng Chen, Hongying Ruan and Peng Lin
Secretory otitis media (SOM) is a common and frequently occurring disease featured by middle ear cavity exudant, ear nausea, and hearing loss. Morbidity of children is higher than that of adults. The pathogenesis and etiology of SOM are clear so far. Previous reports concluded that the mechanical obstruction and dysfunction of the eustachian tube are among the important causes of infection. The mechanism of infection and immune response in the pathogenesis of SOM is currently becoming a research hot spot, providing a reference for further study.