In his paper, Gyorgy Dupka deals with the tragic fate of the Transcarpathian Hungarians and Germans deported for ‘a three-day labour’ in the period of 1944-1946. During the past twenty years, he succeeded in collecting and, in some measure, publicizing sufficient archival materials to open up the facts of the anomies committed by the Soviet military authorities in the fall of 1944 and at the beginning of 1945. All these facts are supported by cogent data and concrete names of the perpetrators. In his paper, the author shows primarily how in the light of the reports conceived by the NKVD and other Soviet central military administrations Order 0036 of the Military Council of the 4th Ukrainian Front was carried into effect.
The deportation - in German: Verschleppung - was a ‘taboo' for a long time. However, the works born since the change of regime provide an excellent and overall picture about this painful historical act. At the same time, it is desirable to get a more precise picture by examining the detailed history of the deportation in the case of the individual settlements. Merk and Valla), the Swabian settlements in the Szatmar region, in the eastern part of the country, lie on the periphery in several aspects. Still, considering the numerical proportion of their population, the most displaced persons were deported by the Soviets, as war criminals, from here in 1945 - a quarter of whom never saw their beloved ones and home country again. It is the particular tragedy of this fact that those deported were at least as much bound to their recipient country, the Hungarian nation, as to their German nationality. They are not criminals of war but victims of the war of racial discrimination. ‘Who will be responsible for these people suffering innocently?’ - puts the question Ferenc Juhasz, parish priest in Merk at that time. Giving an answer is the task of all of us. The paper seeks to explore a segment of the micro-texture of the country-wide, and even wider, regional trauma of this community, based on diary excerpts from the period as well as on individual, specialized literature research.
Interpretation problems related to the notion of ‘malenkaya rabota,’ POW, internee, GULAG and GUPVI. Ways of classification of the victims of ‘malenkaya rabota' in the Carpathian Basin, various groups and types. Determination of the effective number of the groups, and of the total number of those deported as civilians from the 14.7 million inhabitants of the Hungary of the time, based on different data, and the difficulties of definitions. The interpretation and implementation of the central Soviet commands. The connections between the deportations. Similarities and differences between the deportations as internee and as POW. Manageability of the data, interpretation of Soviet and Hungarian archive data and the reasons why they are different. The real value of Soviet archival sources. The determination of the losses attributed to ‘malenkaya rabota’.
The presentation summarizes the results of two years of oral history research. The aim of the research was to record the recollections of the still living eyewitnesses of the events in the fall of 1944 in Cluj and its surroundings, in settlements that belonged to the southern part of Transylvania during World War II. Several hours of interviews were made in the villages of the regions of Ţara Călatei (Kalotaszeg) and the Transylvanian Plain (Mezőség), and the lecture presents a synthesis of these interviews. They address issues like deportation, atrocities, fleeing, arm usage, Soviet and Romanian detention camps, adventurous escapes, etc.
Around 30,000 citizens of pre-war Czechoslovakia were persecuted in the Soviet Union, at least 5.000 originated from Czech lands. One of the groups consist of the people who in the period of 1939-1942 sought refuge in the USSR from German or Hungarian Nazism, or who wanted to actively fight against it. They ended up in the Gulag, from which they were freed during an amnesty linked to the creation of a Czechoslovak unit in the USSR. Many were Czechoslovak Jews, including those who escaped from the Nazi concentration camp in Poland. Nisko, while thousands were inhabitants of Carpathian Ruthenia.
The Only Accessible Gulag Museum, The Gulag.cz Association, Czech Republic
The study presents a virtual tom of the Gulag camp (www.gulag.cz <http://www.gulag.cz>), which consists of the 3D visualization of the labour camp and the panoramic toms of all types of barracks. It is a unique opportunity to familiarize with the conditions, to see how Gulag camps really looked like, especially as there is no museum built from former Gulag camps in Russia today. The description of everyday life in the camp is illustrated by witnesses’ testimonies. The tour is accompanied by a general overview of the Gulag system and the stories of Czechoslovak, Hungarian, and Polish citizens arrested in the Gulag. The virtual tour is the result of three Czech expeditions to the furthest flung parts of Siberia (in 2009, 2011, and 2013), aiming to map what has remained of the abandoned Gulag camps in those areas.