Effective intercultural communication has become a priority today because of the importance it has gained in the understanding of the cultural diversity of the world. Immigration, urbanization, international employment, study exchange programs and ease of foreign travel are facilitating daily contact between people of different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of developing the attitudes and the communication skills necessary for multicultural exchange, in everyday life and within organizations. Learning about other cultures and developing intercultural communication competences and skills can help facilitate the multicultural encounter and can lead to more openness and tolerance towards the significant other.
In our current network-based world, cooperation between different participants in all areas, for example political, defense, economic or cultural, has an increasing role. Because of this the importance of interoperability between participants is also increasing. The central presence of information also highlights the concept and influencing factors of interoperability. The participants can be individuals, organizations or other groups, where a comprehensive flow of information and the constant presence of the information space is essential for its effective and efficient activity. Interoperability issues are also a key component of the military transformation process of NATO, so basic information questions should be answered to achieve the target system. Nowadays, interoperability requirements and definitions are subject to periodic changes in order to facilitate high-tech joint exercises using advanced technology.
The time of conventional conflicts and warfare between states or regular armies has come to an end. The recent theatres of operations have shown us that the Irregular Warfare, marked by the concealment of combatants among the civilian population, has captured the way of conducting military actions. The paper identifies the role of local communities in conflict zones, and their influence in the outcome of armed confrontations.
Social media has become an informational decision-making vector due to the rapid transfer and permanent consumption of messages by the population. In this virtual environment, information changes its qualitative and quantitative form, from real, manipulated to a fabricated form. As information grows, it travels more rapidly, responding to the needs and expectations of individuals, and at the same time there are the dangers of its distortion and intoxication, affecting the perception of the receptors. Fake news is a phenomenon created by social media, in which the communication scheme is vicious, it occurs due to the lack of information of the users. Fake news produces confusion and distraction, leading to fragmented public opinion. At international level, the act of combating this phenomenon was implemented by the authorities on a legislative basis, adopting anti-fake news laws with drastic sanctions, which differ according to the form of government in each state. The first country in the world to introduce an anti-fake news law is Malaysia. And the first European democratic state to initiate two bills against false information is France.
Lieutenant Colonel Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was born in a family of wealthy peasants from Săgeata commune, Buzău County. His studies were: primary school in his native town, high school in Buzău, followed by military studies, namely The Cavalry Officers School from Târgoviște, The Special Cavalry School and The Equestrian School in Sibiu. His military career evolved as follows: from a high school student (1924) to being a caporal, a sergeant and a plutonier (1925), a sub-lieutenant (1927), a lieutenant (1930), a captain (1938), a major (1943) and, at the end of his activity, a colonel lieutenant (1946). Constantin Apostol was considered one of the most prestigious representatives of the Romanian horse riding. He was an instructor and a teacher at the Equestrian School in Sibiu and at the Superior School of War. In the interwar period, Constantin Apostol represented Romania at numerous international equestrian contests, winning many awards, including the first prize in tournements such as those from Aachen (The Great Trophy), Brussels, Belgrade, Berlin, Duseldorf, London, Munich, Naples, Nice, Paris, Rome, Warsaw, Vienna, etc. For such results, his name was mentioned several times in the Day Order. Constantin Apostol remained active even after his retirement, when, while in reserve, he prepared the Romanian national team for the Olympics in Helsinki and Stockholm (1952, 1956) and was also the coach of Petrolul Ploiești Sports Club.
Constantin Apostol (1903-1995) was a prominent representative of the interwar Romanian horse riding . He was born in Săgeata, Buzău County , attended primary school in his home town, high school in Buzău and military studies in Târgovişte and Sibiu. As far as his military career is concerned, C. Apostol advanced up to the rank of a lieutenant-colonel. He participated in various international competitions, winning many awards, including the first prize, in countries, such as: England, Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Germany, France, Italy, Poland. He took part in the military operations of World War II, both in the East and in the West, being decorated for his actions on both war fields. After the establishment of the communist regime, Constantin Apostol was continuosly humiliated, and finally imprisoned. In our work, the author aims to present, for the first time ever, precisely this final stage of his life.
The study of the military phenomenon can only be achieved by analyzing it in connection with other processes of social life and within the complex conditions determined by a set of political, social, economic, international, technological, etc factors. Thus, this research aims at identifying and presenting the main features of the military conflicts predictable in the future. Also, we made an analysis of the fundamental elements of the operational environment, from the perspective of the identified types of conflicts.
Robert Stănciulescu, Cristian Stănciulescu and Elvira Beldiman
Judo, a sport playing a vital role in the training of the military, leads to the achievement of positive, multiple and unique effects, both in terms of developing the motor skills, but also in the formation, consolidation and improvement of applicative skills and aptitudes specific to close combat. The paper highlights the fact that the methods and contents specific to combat sports represent a useful and effective way of meeting the formative objectives in the context of the current Romanian Army missions, facilitating the physical adaptation of the combatants to the new demands imposed by the modern battlefield, characteristic of the actions carried out by NATO military structures.
First aid is the implementation of measures of the immediate care taken of the lives of people with traumas and illnesses until they are given professional medical assistance. It consists of a series of simple, but sometimes life-saving, medical techniques that can be performed with minimal equipment and by military personnel who are generally free of special medical education. This report examines the methodology of the first aid cadet training at Vasil Levski National Military University.
In a market economy, the credit assures a transfer of repayable value for a limited period of time in exchange for a price that is referred to as interest on credit. The role of the credit is to generate liquidity flows for its beneficiary in such a way as to enable him, on the one hand, to honour his obligations to the bank, namely the payment of the monthly rate of credit, interest, bank commissions as well as the insurance of the contracted loan and on the other hand to obtain a profit. In order to benefit from loans, micro-enterprises are analyzed by banks through methods, policies, tools and techniques of each bank. The credit decision will be taken by the bank only after it has ensured that potential borrowers are in line with the rules and lending regulations of the lending bank.