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Comparison of Paraffin and Diesel Oil as Cultivation Medium Supplements for Preparing a Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterial Biomass

Abstract

The effect of liquid paraffin and diesel oil as nutrient amendments for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria was compared. Different parameters were analyzed - optical density of bacterial suspension, oxygen consumption by biomass, morphology of bacteria, etc. In some experiments the paraffin was more preferable for microorganisms, but in other tests the results for both substances were similar. The influence of the comparable substances strongly depends on cultivation conditions.

Open access
Comparison of Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry and Orbitrap High Resolution Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Pharmaceutical Residues in Biota Samples

Abstract

This research demonstrates the development of reliable multi-component methods for the detection of antibiotic residues in environmental biota. The efficiency of analytical performance of ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) techniques with triple quadrupole (QqQ-MS/MS) and Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) detectors is discussed. Antibiotic residues in biota samples collected in Latvia were analysed. The contamination status was determined as rather low within acceptable levels set by the European Union Regulations.

Open access
Floating Ceramics vs. Floating Oils: Search for Appropriate Conditions

Abstract

Ceramic granules fabricated from Quaternary clay at 1200°C were tested for their flotation ability in a water model system containing silicone oil. The presence of oil in the liquid phase improved flotation of granules, probably due to sorption of oil by ceramics. Coating of granules with SiO2 resulted in decreased flotation ability, irrespectively of the presence of oil. Granules were shown to be appropriate for bacterial colonization.

Open access
Mechanical Properties and Biocompatibility of a Biomaterial Based on Deproteinized Hydroxyapatite and Endodentine Cement

Abstract

Hydroxyapatite is used for bone reconstruction, in order to improve its mechanical properties different substances can be added. In our study new biomaterial is created from deproteinised hydroxyaptite and endodentic cement, its mechanical properties were tested. Material was implanted subcutaneous in rats, then histological and biocompatability tests were performed. Results indicate that stuff has good mechanical properties, short setting time and gradual resorption creating porosity and ability to integrate in bone.

Open access
Obtaining and Organophilisation of Smectite Clays with Reduced Iron Oxide Content

Abstract

Raw clays from the Baltic region are characterized as smectite containing clays with significant amount of naturally occurring impurities that limiting the potential applications of crude Baltic clay resources. Purification of clay samples from Šaltiškių deposit (Venta basin) was carried out by varied concentration hydrochloric acid solutions and resulted in fine removal of carbonates and iron oxide. The main idea of this work is to widen the possible applications of local clay resources providing a new type of raw material for further organoclay production.

Open access
Reversed-Phase High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analysis of β-Lactoglobulin and α-Lactalbumin in Different Types of Milk

Abstract

The aim of this study was to detect major whey proteins α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). RPHPLC methods were developed using the column YMC Pack-C4, which enabled the separation of whey proteins within 30 min. Mobile phase was acetonitrile/water/0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) with gradient elution, flow rate was 1.0 mL·min−1, and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. Column temperature was 40°C and injection volume was 20 μL.

Milk samples contained α-lactalbumin and total β-lactoglobulin: No. 1 - 1500 mg·L−1 and 3600 mg·L−1; No. 2 - no α-lactalbumin and 450 mg·L−1 total β-lactoglobulin; No. 3 - 800 mg·L−1 and 94 mg·L−1, respectively.

Open access
Synthesis and Characterization of Cationic Poly(N-[3-Hexyldimethyl-Aminopropyl] Methacrylamide Bromide) Water-Soluble Polymer

Abstract

Water-soluble polymer, cationic poly(N-[3-hexyldimethyl-aminopropyl] methacrylamide bromide) (PHDAPMAA), is synthesized by radical polymerization and studied in terms of its solubility, viscosity, surface tension and conductivity. Viscometry and surface tension measurements confirmed that intramolecular hydrophobic microdomains were formed by the pendent alkyl chains. Conductivity of cationic polymer in aqueous solution was determined. Variation of conductivity versus concentration in investigated system exhibits a typical polyelectrolyte behaviour.

Open access
Aerosol and gamma background measurements at Basic Environmental Observatory Moussala

Abstract

Trans boundary and local pollution, global climate changes and cosmic rays are the main areas of research performed at the regional Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station Moussala BEO (2925 m a.s.l., 42°10’45’’ N, 23°35’07’’ E). Real time measurements and observations are performed in the field of atmospheric chemistry and physics. Complex information about the aerosol is obtained by using a threewavelength integrating Nephelometer for measuring the scattering and backscattering coefficients, a continuous light absorption photometer and a scanning mobile particle sizer. The system for measuring radioactivity and heavy metals in aerosols allows us to monitor a large scale radioactive aerosol transport. The measurements of the gamma background and the gamma-rays spectrum in the air near Moussala peak are carried out in real time. The HYSPLIT back trajectory model is used to determine the origin of the data registered. DREAM code calculations [2] are used to forecast the air mass trajectory. The information obtained combined with a full set of corresponding meteorological parameters is transmitted via a high frequency radio telecommunication system to the Internet.

Open access
Chemical modification of alginic acid by ultrasonic irradiation

Abstract: Chemical modification of alginic acid has been done by ultrasonic irradiation to obtain its methylated, ethylated and isopropylated derivatives. The influence of ultrasonic frequency and power on esterification process of alginic acid has been investigated. Alginate derivatives have been characterized by degree of esterification (DE) and IR-FT spectroscopy. It has been found that 45 kHz ultrasonic frequency accelerated modification process as reduced the reaction time from 16 hours to 2 hours. The obtained results showed that ultrasound irradiation increased the reaction efficiency in methanol and depended on the ratio of the M/G.

Open access
Critical thickness of foam films stabilized by nonionic, ionic surfactants and their mixtures

Abstract

The critical thickness (hcr) for foam films of n-dodecyl β-D maltoside (C12G2) and of its mixed solutions with dodecanol (C12Е0), hexaethyleneglycol dodecyl ether (C12E6) and dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (C12TAB) of different molar ratio (50:1; 1:1;1:50) at low and high ionic strength was measured interferometrically. It was found that the hcr increases with the increase of the film radius independently of solutions composition. At low ionic strength the type of surfactant affects the critical thickness and the equilibrium state of the film. hcr for the films of mixture with C12E0 increases with the increase of the total surfactant concentration, while hcr for the films of mixture with C12TAB decreases. For the values of the critical thicknesses for films from individual surfactant solutions the following sequence hcr (C12TAB) > hcr (C12E6) > hcr (C12G2) is found. At high ionic strength the quantity of nonionic additive does not substantially affect the value of hcr, while the quantity of ionic additive influences it by two different ways (i) in 50:1 mixture C12TAB supports C12G2 in the reducing of negative charge; (ii) in 1:1 mixture C12TAB recharges the film surfaces.

Open access