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Open access

Nyúl-Tóth Ádám, Mészáros Ádám, Győri Fanni, Wilhelm Imola and István A. Krizbai

Abstract

Proper functioning of the nervous system is largely dependent on the precise regulation of the neuronal environment. By shielding the central nervous system (CNS) from potentially harmful substances, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) has an indispensable role in this process. The BBB is a specialized system of endothelial cells lining brain microvessels, which – supported by pericytes and glial cells – form a selective barrier between the blood and the neural tissue. Under abnormal conditions, permeability of the BBB may increase, which may either trigger or aggravate the disease. Since CNS disorders – at least in their initial phase – usually do not involve the whole brain and spinal cord, but are localized to a certain region, our aim was to understand whether the BBB is regionally heterogeneous at the molecular level. By using bioinformatics tools, we analyzed expression levels of genes specific to cerebral endothelial cells, pericytes or astrocytes in different brain territories. Our results revealed regional heterogeneities in the expression of BBB-associated genes in both human and mouse. Expression pattern of efflux transporters – which have a major role in blocking passage of therapeutic agents through the BBB – proved to be diverse both among brain regions and between mouse and human. Our results indicate that: (1) in silico database analyses are suitable for group-based studies on gene functions, overcoming the limitations of single-gene analyses; (2) high-throughput tests should always be validated using other methods; (3) when using animal models, inter-species differences have to be always considered; (4) when comparing different brain regions, the BBB is heterogeneous at the molecular level, and this might have clinical significance.

Open access

Agne Mazurkeviciute, Kristina Ramanauskiene, Marija Ivaskiene, Aidas Grigonis and Vitalis Briedis

Abstract

Bigels with antifungal substances, ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride, were made of hydrogel (poloxamer 407 gel) and oleogel (polyethylene and liquid paraffin mixture). Prepared bigels were found physically stable at room temperature for six months and at least four months at 40 °C. Released amount of drug decreased when oleogel concentration in the formulation increased. Release test results depended on the insertion place of active substances. The amount of released substance was highest when ciclopirox olamine was incorporated in both phases in an equal quantity, and terbinafine hydrochloride in oleogel or in hydrogel. All formulations showed great inhibition of Microsporum canis. Thus, bigels with ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride are a promising dosage form for topical use.

Open access

Loretta Pobłocka-Olech, Piotr Migas and Mirosława Krauze-Baranowska

Abstract

Flavonoids in the buds of eight Populus species and hybrids were detected and compared with the aid of an optimized TLC method. Separation of 17 flavonoid aglycones belonging to different groups, namely, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols, previously described as constituents of poplar buds, was performed on silica gel plates using a hexane/ethyl acetate/formic acid (60:40:1.3, V/V/V) mixture as the mobile phase. Pinocembrin and pinostrobin were found in the majority of analyzed poplar buds. For quantitative analysis of both compounds, two TLC evaluation modes, densitometric and videodensitometric, were compared and the established methods were validated. Concentrations of flavanones in some extracts differed slightly or significantly due to the analyzed plant matrix complexity and the TLC evaluation mode applied. Poplar buds rich in flavanones originated from P. × canadensis ‘Robusta’ (1.82 and 2.23 g per 100 g, resp.) and P. balsamifera (1.17 and 2.24 g per 100 g, resp.).

Open access

Ahmed Jalil Al-Safi and Yehya Kamal Al-Bayati

Abstract

Four electrodes were synthesized based on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs). Two MIPs were prepared by using tramadol hydrochloride (TRH) as the template, acryl amide (AA) and 2-hydroxy ethyl meth acrylate (2-HEMA) as monomers, divinyl benzene as a cross linker, and benzoyl peroxide as initiator, respectively. The same composition was used to prepare non-imprinted polymers (NIPs), but without the template (Tramadol hydrochloride). Different plasticizers were employed to prepare the membranes; tris (ethyl hexyl) phosphate (TEHP), tri Butyl phosphate (TBP), di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and nitrobenzene (NB) in PVC matrix. The electrode characteristics and properties were studied, including: slope, detection limit, life time and linearity range. The results of selectivity coefficient measurements using amino acids as interfering species showed no effect on tramadol electrode response. The prepared electrodes were intended for use in determining tramadol in pharmaceutical samples

Open access

M. Molitorisová, J. Kotlářová, M. Snopková and I. Waczulíková

Abstract

Introduction: Intervention of pharmacists in medication adherence can meaningfully contribute to achieving therapeutic outcomes. Exploring the real-life readiness and opportunities of pharmacists may result in the adoption of measures, which could be seen through improvement of patients’ adherence to pharmacotherapy.

Aim: The aim of the paper was to make a survey on community pharmacists’ potential in medication adherence support in its connectivity to technical and personnel factors, which underline the capacities of pharmacies in dealing with medication adherence.

Methods: The questionnaire survey was conducted from October to December 2014 and involved 158 pharmacists from 117 Czech (CZ) and 41 Slovak (SK) community pharmacies. The structured questionnaire surveyed both technical and personnel factors, including provision of consultancy services related to medication adherence. Non-adherence risk reduction was evaluated by adopting Morisky Scale modified from the pharmacist’s perspective. Questionnaires outcomes were summarised in contingency tables and analyzed for associations between respective categorical variables using χ2 or exact tests and association coefficients. All results are reported as significant at P≤0.05.

Results: The average score of adherence support (CZ/SK 1.95/1.93) was significantly higher as compared to that of persistence or concordance (P<0.001). Reduction of non-adherence risk reached the score of a medium degree (P=0.73, average 2.29 in CZ and 2.22 in SK). These findings were significantly associated with personnel capacities (provision of consultancy, preference for the use of recommended procedures in CZ (P<0.001), number of years of practice in SK (P=0.029)), while significant association with technical equipment (consultancy room) in the SK (P=0.037).

Conclusion: The pharmaceutical care is developing towards the improvement of medication adherence in both countries - assuming a medium degree of adherence support. Further progress may be observed in strengthening the pharmacists’ personnel capacities, and accelerated mainly using information technologies, i.e. through technical capacities.

Open access

Esam Bakir, Mohamed Gouda, Ahmed Alnajjar and Waleed E. Boraie

Abstract

A simple and sensitive spectrofluorimetric method for determination of atenolol (ATE) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. The method is based on the quenching effect of atenolol on photoluminescence of AuNPs at λ em = 705 nm. Variables affecting luminescence of gold nanoparticles such as the solvent, pH value and surfactant were studied and optimized. The method was preliminarily validated according to ICH guidelines. A linear correlation was recorded within the range of 1.0–10 mg mL−1 ATE with the coefficient of determination R 2 of 0.999. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation for atenolol were found to be 0.87 and 2.64 mg mL−1, resp. Good recoveries in the range of 98.7–100.0 % were obtained for spiked samples. The proposed method was applied successfully to assaying atenolol in pharmaceuticals formulations.

Open access

Béla Kovács, Lajos Kristóf Kántor, Mircea Dumitru Croitoru, Éva Katalin Kelemen, Mona Obreja, Előd Ernő Nagy, Blanka Székely-Szentmiklósi and Árpád Gyéresi

Abstract

A reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method was developed for strontium ranelate using a full factorial, screening experimental design. The analytical procedure was validated according to international guidelines for linearity, selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. A separate experimental design was used to demonstrate the robustness of the method. Strontium ranelate was eluted at 4.4 minutes and showed no interference with the excipients used in the formulation, at 321 nm. The method is linear in the range of 20–320 μg mL−1 (R2 = 0.99998). Recovery, tested in the range of 40–120 μg mL−1, was found to be 96.1–102.1 %. Intra-day and intermediate precision RSDs ranged from 1.0–1.4 and 1.2–1.4 %, resp. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were 0.06 and 0.20 μg mL−1, resp. The proposed technique is fast, cost-effective, reliable and reproducible, and is proposed for the routine analysis of strontium ranelate.

Open access

T. Peráček, F. Vojtech, M. Srebalová, B. Pekár, B. Mikušová-Meričková and M. Horvat

Abstract

After years of mainly expert discussions (not only in the Slovak legal environment), the concept of and legislation on re-export offer a sort of solution provided for in the Act no. 306/2016 Coll. Said act amends the key legislation in this field, namely the Act no. 362/2011 Coll. on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices and on the amendment of certain acts, as amended (hereinafter referred to as the “Act on Medicinal Products”) and the Act no. 363/2011 Coll. on the Scope and Conditions of Payments for Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Dietetic Foods from Public Health Insurance and on the amendment of certain acts, as amended (hereinafter referred to as the “Act on Payments”). The topic of the paper belongs in the area of medicinal products and pharmaceutical services, it offers, however, significant overlaps in the area of the constitutional, administrative and European law and is aimed at multidisciplinary research into the issue of the reverse export (re-export) of medicinal products. Besides these laws, also the Constitution of the Slovak Republic (“SR”) and the sources of the European Law have to be taken into account in relation to the subject in question. The main aim of legislation in this area of law was restriction on the re-export of selected products and protection of patients from adverse impacts of such business activity. The aim of the paper is the authors’ effort to analyse the issue of the re-export of medicinal products within the context of the adopted Act no. 306/2016 Coll., whose legislative solution is inevitable for the protection of life and health of the population of the Slovak Republic.

Open access

Piotr Szpak and Jolanta Szymanska

Abstract

The marginal bone loss around dental implants is an important indicator that helps to evaluate the course and the final outcome of implant-prosthetic treatment. It is, therefore, important to understand the factors that may affect this. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the specific characteristics of implant-prosthetic treatment on the marginal bone loss around implants. The study included 28 patients, aged 37-66 years, treated with dental implants. Every patient received at least one of the two types of implants: with Morse taper connection and with internal hexagonal connection. The average marginal bone loss around the implants was evaluated on the basis of the panoramic radiographs. The maximum follow-up period after implantation was 46 months. The peri-implant marginal bone loss was evaluated taking into consideration the implant localisation, the procedure of sinus lift with bone augmentation, implant type, implant diameter, vertical implant position relative to the compact bone level and the type of prosthetic restoration, the time between implantation and loading with prosthetic restoration, as well as the time between loading and the measurement of marginal bone loss. The correlation between bone loss and the selected characteristics of the treatment was assessed using generalised estimating equations (GEE). An objective analysis was enabled via the applied research model: evaluation of an impact of the specific implant-prosthetic treatment characteristics on peri-implant marginal bone loss in patients treated with implants with different implant-abutment interface systems. The results of the study showed that peri-implant marginal bone loss increased significantly with implant localisation in canine sites (compared to the localization in premolar sites), as well as with prosthetic restorations in the form of dentures (compared to bridges), and decreased when implants were placed below the compact bone level (compared to those placed at the bone level). At the same time, marginal bone loss was not significantly related to implant diameter or to the sinus lift procedure. The results obtained seem extremely useful in everyday clinical practice