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Hans Van Eyghen

Abstract

It is widely acknowledged that the new emerging discipline cognitive science of religion has a bearing on how to think about the epistemic status of religious beliefs. Both defenders and opponents of the rationality of religious belief have used cognitive theories of religion to argue for their point. This paper will look at the defender-side of the debate. I will discuss an often used argument in favor of the trustworthiness of religious beliefs, stating that cognitive science of religion shows that religious beliefs are natural and natural beliefs ought to be trusted in the absence of counterevidence. This argument received its most influential defense from Justin Barrett in a number of papers, some in collaboration with Kelly James Clark. I will discuss their version of the argument and argue that it fails because the natural beliefs discovered by cognitive scientists of religion are not the religious beliefs of the major world religions. A survey of the evidence from cognitive science of religion will show that cognitive science does show that other beliefs come natural and that these can thus be deemed trustworthy in the absence of counterevidence. These beliefs are teleological beliefs, afterlife beliefs and animistic theistic beliefs.

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Jay R. Feierman

Abstract

Eusociality is the most successful animal social system on earth. It is found in many social insects, a few crustacean species, and only three vertebrates: two African naked mole rats and human beings. Eusociality, so unusual for a vertebrate, is one of main factors leading to human beings becoming the most successful land vertebrate on earth by almost any measure. We are also unique in being the only land vertebrate with religions. Could the two be related? This article will present evidence, illustrated primarily with Judaism and Christianity, that these two seemingly unrelated social systems – eusociality and religion – that correlate temporally in our evolution, are possibly related. Evidence will also be presented that a (mostly) non-reproducing exemplar caste of celibate clergy was a eusocial-facilitating aspect of religion in western social evolution.

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Konrad Szocik

Abstract

Cognitive approach towards the study of religion is a good and promising way. However, I think that this approach is too narrow and it would be better to use some basic concepts of CSR as a starting point for further, not cognitive explanation of religious. I suppose that religious beliefs should be explained also by their pragmatic functions because they were probably always associated with some pragmatic purposes at the group or at the individual levels. To develop further this last approach, the good explanatory way is the evolutionary study of religion.

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Lluis Oviedo

Abstract

First of all we pay attention to cognitive studies of religion and compare theology and philosophy of religion.

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Y. Çenesiz and A. Kurt

Abstract

Conformable fractional complex transform is introduced in this paper for converting fractional partial differential equations to ordinary differential equations. Hence analytical methods in advanced calculus can be used to solve these equations. Conformable fractional complex transform is implemented to fractional partial differential equations such as space fractional advection diffusion equation and space fractional telegraph equation to obtain the exact solutions of these equations.

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N. A. Khan, A. Shaikh, M. A. Zahoor Raja and S. Khan

Abstract

In this article, Legendre simulated annealing, neural network (LSANN) is designed for fuzzy fractional order differential equations, which is employed on fractional fuzzy initial value problem (FFIVP) with triangular condition. Here, Legendre polynomials are used to modify the structure of neural networks with a Taylor series approximation of the tangent hyperbolic as activation function while the network adaptive coefficients are trained in the procedure of simulated annealing to optimize the residual error. The computational results are depicted in terms of numerical values to compare them with previous results.

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S. K. Pal and H. P. Singh

Abstract

In surveys covering human populations it is observed that information in most cases are not obtained at the first attempt even after some callbacks. Such problems come under the category of non-response. Surveys suffer with non-response in various ways. It depends on the nature of required information, either surveys is concerned with general or sensitive issues of a society. Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) have considered the problem of non-response while estimating the population mean by taking a subsample from the non-respondent group with the help of extra efforts and an estimator was suggested by combining the information available from the response and nonresponse groups. We also mention that in survey sampling auxiliary information is commonly used to improve the performance of an estimator of a quantity of interest. For estimating the population mean using auxiliary information in presence of non-response has been discussed by various authors. In this paper, we have developed estimators for estimating the population mean of the variable under interest when there is non-response error in the study as well as in the auxiliary variable. We have studied properties of the suggested estimators under large sample approximation. Comparison of the suggested estimators with usual unbiased estimator reported by Hansen and Hurwitz (1946) and the ratio estimator due to Rao (1986) have been made. The results obtained are illustrated with aid of an empirical study.

Open access

S. Soradi Zeid, M. Yousefi and M. Yousefi

Abstract

In this study we apply the Adomian decomposition method (ADM) to approximate the solution of fractional optimal control problems (FOCPs) where the dynamic of system is a linear control system with constant coefficient and the cost functional is defined in a quadratic form. First we stated the necessary optimality conditions in a form of fractional two point boundary value problem (TPBVP), then the ADM is used to solve the resulting fractional differential equations (FDEs). Some examples are provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the proposed method.

Open access

Cezary Mordka

Abstract

This paper attempts to coin a stipulative definition of “emotions” to determine their functions. In this sense, “emotion” is a complex phenomenon consisting of an accurate (reliable) determination of the state of affairs in relation to the state of the subject and specific “points of adaptation”. Apart from the cognitive aspect, this phenomenon also includes behavior, physiological changes and expressions (facial expression, voice, posture), feelings, and “execution” of emotions in the nervous system. Emotions fulfill informative, calibrating, identifying, existential, and motivating functions. Emotions capture the world as either positive or negative, important or unimportant, and are used to determine and assign weightings (to set up a kind of hierarchy). They emerge automatically (involuntarily), are difficult (or hardly possible) to control and are (to some extent) influenced by culture.

Open access

Anna Głąb

Abstract

The text analyzes Leo Tolstoy’s Resurrection focusing on the feelings expressed in the novel. It focuses on: (I) the ways in which the content of the novel is expressed through artistic means; (II) Tolstoy’s anthropology; (III) the notion of love presented by Ronald de Sousa in his last book Love. A Very Short Introduction: the difference between love and mood or emotion; the classification of love (philia, storge, agape, eros); the distinction between love and lust; love as a reason-free desire; and the notion of the historicity of love.