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Open access

D. Urbanová and M. Halán

Abstract

The aim of this study was to obtain new knowledge and show the possibility of the use of ultrasonographic (USG) examinations in reptilian medicine. As reptiles are patients brought to veterinary clinic in smaller numbers, we focused on the indications and limits of this type of examination in individual groups of reptiles. In the period of 2014—2015 we examined by ultrasound, 28 reptiles with the aim to diagnose gravidity, reproductive problems and to determine their gender. At the same time we examined the internal organs and their availability for potential USG examinations. We also investigated: the issues related to fixation and positioning of the patients; selection of suitable examination probes; and the ways of their application to a suitable body area. The experimental part of our study was focused on the examination of the reproductive apparatus of reptiles. We monitored: individual phases of gravidity in selected reptilian species; evaluated development of follicles in ovaries; and the development of eggs after successful mating up to their laying. We described the pathological states of reproductive organs and the suitability of this examination for the determination of gender.

Open access

D. Maženský and S. Flešárová

Abstract

We recorded a very rare case of atypical renal arteries arrangement in a guinea pig using the corrosion technique in the study of the arterial system. The right renal artery originated from the ventral wall of the abdominal aorta at the level of the caudal aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra. The left renal artery originated from the left common iliac artery approximately 12 mm caudally to the aortic bifurcation. The right kidney was located ventral to the aortic bifurcation and the left kidney inside the pelvic cavity between the common iliac arteries. According to the vascular pattern, we determined that the ectopic kidneys in this guinea pig were unusual. This is the first case describing bilateral ectopic kidneys in a guinea pig.

Open access

T. Orosová, M. Goldová, J. Ciberej and G. Štrkolcová

Abstract

During the years 2015—2016 we obtained 15 samples of faeces of brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 2 samples of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of young female brown bears for helminthological examinations. The samples of faeces were collected from various sites in the protected landscape area CHKO-Poľana, and the gastrointestinal tracts originated from bears hunted down in the same area within permitted regulation of bear population for 2015. Of the 17 samples collected from the CHKO-Poľana area, 13 were positive for the presence of parasites (76.47 %). Parasitological examinations revealed the presence of 5 species of endoparasites: Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, Baylisascaris and Ancylostoma. Roundworms Baylisascaris transfuga (46.15 %) and Ancylostoma spp. (30.77 %) were the dominant species. Observation of the seasonal dynamics showed the highest prevalence of parasites during autumn and winter.

Open access

O. E. Adebiyi, J. O. Olopade and F. O. Olayemi

Abstract

Vanadium (V), a heavy metal, has been reported to induce central nervous system toxicity leading to various behavioural impairments. It is characterized by the production of reactive oxygen. The present study was designed to test the possibility of Grewia carpinifolia ethanolic extract in preventing behavioural alterations following acute vanadium toxicity in mice. Twenty five Swiss albino mice (25—27 g) were completely randomized into 5 groups (A—E) of 5 animals each. Group A received distilled water and served as a control; group B, received vitamin E (500 mg.kg−1 b. w. every 72 hours), a known antioxidant orally, along with a daily dose of sodium metavanadate intraperitoneally (i. p.) for 7 days; group C and group D received Grewia carpinifolia leaf extract at 100 and 200 mg.kg−1 b.w orally respectively, along with the sodium metavanadate i. p. for 7 days; while group E received sodium metavanadate i. p. only for 7 days. The behavioural and motor functions were analysed by the open field, negative geotaxis, and hanging wire tests; the daily body and brain weights were recorded. Grewia carpinifolia ethanolic extracts significantly reduced the number of grooming, stretched attend posture, and freezing time that were significantly increased in the vanadium only group and also enhanced the vestibular functions. In addition, the latent time spent on the hanging wire in groups simultaneously administered with the extract and V compared favourably (P > 0.05) with the control groups but a decrease in latent time was observed in the V only group. The results suggest that acute V toxicity results in various behavioural deficits and support a possible role of Grewia carpinifolia as a protective agent against acute vanadium-toxicity with a better result at 200 mg.kg−1 b. w.

Open access

I. Šoltýsová, D. Toropilová and T. de Vringer

Abstract

Active ingredients in pharmaceuticals differ by their physico-chemical properties and their bioavailability therefore varies. The most frequently used and most convenient way of administration of medicines is oral, however many drugs are little soluble in water. Thus they are not sufficiently effective and suitable for such administration. For this reason a system of lipid based formulations (LBF) was developed. Series of formulations were prepared and tested in water and biorelevant media. On the basis of selection criteria, there were selected formulations with the best emulsification potential, good dispersion in the environment and physical stability. Samples of structurally different drugs included in the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics classification system (BCS) were obtained, namely Griseofulvin, Glibenclamide, Carbamazepine, Haloperidol, Itraconazol, Triclosan, Praziquantel and Rifaximin, for testing of maximal saturation in formulations prepared from commercially available excipients. Methods were developed for preparation of formulations, observation of emulsification and its description, determination of maximum solubility of drug samples in the respective formulation and subsequent analysis. Saturation of formulations with drugs showed that formulations 80 % XA and 20 % Xh, 35 % XF and 65 % Xh were best able to dissolve the drugs which supports the hypothesis that it is desirable to identify limited series of formulations which could be generally applied for this purpose.

Open access

D. Sopková, R. Vlčková, Z. Andrejčáková, Z. Hertelyová, S. Gancarčíková and R. Nemcová

Abstract

This study investigated for 14 days post-weaning, the influence of dietary supplementation of synbiotics in the form of probiotic cheeses containing cultures of L. plantarum and L. fermentum and crushed flaxseed (source of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids — PUFAs and fibre) on 36 commercial piglets originating from an infected herd (Coronavirus and E. coli) during the critical period of weaning. We focused on the health and metabolism of PUFAs in this critical period of a piglet’s life. The dietary supplementation positively affected: the overall health state of weaners, reduced diarrhoea by 29 % by 14 days post-weaning and significantly increased the counts of lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and the production of volatile fatty acids. The PUFA concentrations in the m. biceps femoris of the piglets were analysed by gas chromatography. High levels of ω-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in flaxseed increased significantly the level of ALA, eicosapentaenic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenic acid (DHA) in the pig muscles on days 7 and 14 post-weaning. The levels of ω-6 linolenic acid (LA) were less affected by the diet, but were increased on day 14 post-weaning, while the conversion products of LA, and arachidonic acid (AA), were decreased on days 7 and 14. The increased level of dietary ALA favoured the activity of Δ-6-desaturase for the conversion of ALA to EPA and DHA, at the expense of AA synthesis from LA. The ability of synbiotics to incorporate high levels of DHA in the pig muscles appear prospective for improving the nutritional properties of pork and reducing the occurrence of civilization diseases in consumers of this product of animal origin.

Open access

P. Mudroň

Abstract

This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of claw diseases in dairy cows housed on two different bedding systems: deep straw bedding and unsterilized recycled manure solids. On the farm (farm A) with the straw bedding, 403 and on the farm (farm B) with manure solid bedding, 226 dairy cows were examined. The prevalence of cows with one or more claw lesions on the farm with straw bedding and with manure solids were 37 % and 69 %, respectively (P < 0.001). In both bedding systems, two claw lesions dominated: digital dermatitis and inflammatory disorders of corium (white line diseases, toe ulcer, and sole ulcer). The prevalence of the digital dermatitis housed in deep-bedded freestalls and in freestalls with manure solids were 17.8 % and 53.1 % (P < 0.001), respectively. The prevalence of the white line diseases and toe ulcer were 12.1 % and 15.7 % on farm A and 3.88 % and 2.59 % on farm B, respectively (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the sole ulcer between farms. These data indicate a relatively high prevalence of claw lesions on the studied dairy farms. Moreover, a long-term contact of claws with manure (boxes and corridors) on the farm with unsterilized recycled manure solids seems to be associated with a higher prevalence of digital dermatitis.

Open access

I. Strapáč and M. Baranová

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the content of chemical elements in the dried fruiting bodies of edible wood decaying fungi such as Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea), Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes) and Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus). Powdered samples of fungi were mineralized in a microwave digestion. Twenty-one (21) chemical elements were detected in the plasma of the device ICP-MS AGILENT 7500c by accredited methods with the aid of calibration curves. The content of individual elements varied within a considerable range. The highest contents of K, Mn, Cu and Cd were found in the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea). Shiitakes (Lentinus edodes) had the highest content of B and Mo. Significant differences were found in the content of elements in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) from Slovakia, Hungary and China. The highest content of Al was found in the Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) from Hungary. The Chinese oysters had a maximum contents of Ca, Mg, Co, Pb, As and U. The Oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) from Lemešany (Slovakia) had the highest contents of Na, Zn, Fe, Se, Ag, Hg and Cr. The difference of chemical element content could be influenced by the genotype of the fungus and by the composition of substrate on which mushroom grow up.

Open access

N. Kmecová, T. Weissová and K. Vdoviaková

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine whether behaviour problems in indoor cats depend on the number of cats in a household or rearing one or more cats in a household together with a dog. The study was carried out on animals which were divided for the purpose of this study into 4 groups: (1) households with one cat; (2) households with two cats; (3) households with three or more cats; (4) households with one or more cats and a dog. Altogether 91 cats were included in the study. The practical part of this investigation was based on a questionnaire. It was observed that the probability of behaviour problems was not related unambiguously to the number of cats in a household or the company of a dog. The percentage of the occurrence of changed behaviour did not differ significantly between the groups.

Open access

I. Strapáč, M. Baranová, M. Smrčová and Z. Bedlovičová

Abstract

Mushrooms Basidiomycota have long been appreciated for their taste, flavour, desirable aroma, texture, nutraceutical and medicinal attributes. Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea) are edible mushroom generally used in traditional oriental medicine. The aim of this study was to examine extracts from the fruiting bodies of these mushrooms. The content of the components with antioxidant properties, such as total phenols, total flavonoids, β-carotene, lycopene and β-glucans were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The results obtained showed that the water extracts contained higher levels of total phenols and total flavonoids (367.1 and 548.5 mg.dm−3 gallic acid equivalent — GAE, respectively) in comparison with methanol extracts (108.2 and 113.4 mg.dm−3 GAE, respectively). Very low contents of β-carotene and lycopene were determined in the methanol extract (0.756 mg.g−1 dry weight and 0.05 mg.g−1 dry weight, respectively). Methanol extracts from the fruiting bodies of Honey mushrooms (Armillaria mellea) inhibited the uptake activity of 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals by 45 %. The IC50 (mg of compound, that inhibit 50 % of DPPH radicals) of methanol extract was below 10 mg.cm−3 (6.448 mg.cm−3), suggesting a high antioxidant potential of fruiting bodies of the Honey mushrooms Armillaria mellea.