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Open access

Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: We present the results of the research on the impact of the CAP on the development of family farms in the province of Podlasie. Materials and methods: The research covered farms included in the FADN system. The analysis concerns 2005 and 2014 and was carried out in groups separated due to the their condition and development opportunities: progressive farms, potentially progressive and non-progressive ones. The development opportunities were assessed on the basis of the surplus on self-financing, net investments and fixed asset replacement rates. Results: In all groups of farms the value of assets grew, and the growth rate of assets was the highest in the progressive farms. Only the progressive and potentially progressive farms had self-financing options. Conclusions: Budget transfers targeted at farms affected the intensification of activities related to their modernization, which resulted in the diversification of these entities. The most active recreation of fixed assets took place in the progressive farms. The market activity of potentially progressive farms increased and they are likely to become progressive farms in the future. The non-progressive farms are characterized by their permanent inability to develop.

Open access

Andrzej Parzonko

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The objectives of the elaboration are the following: 1) to analyze the regional changes (at the level of poviats) in the number of farms involved in milk production over the period 2002-2010; 2) to present the main factors affecting the ongoing changes in Polish farms oriented at milk production; 3) to determine the impact of the measure 121. “Modernization of agricultural holdings” under the RDP 2007-2013 and the applied system of direct subsidies for the development of farms oriented at milk production. Materials and methods: The work has been prepared on the basis of the analysis and synthesis of the source literature, statistical data collected and the author’s own reflections. Results: In Poland, in the years 2002-2010 there was a distinct regional differentiation in the pace of the ongoing changes in the dairy sector. The regions, where we observe the development of milk production, include almost the entire Podlaskie Province, the northern part of the Mazowieckie Province and the south-eastern part of the Warmińsko-Mazurskie Province. Conclusions: Within the RDP 2007-2013, significant funds were allocated to support the modernization of agricultural farms. Mainly under the measure 121 “Modernization of agricultural holdings” the investments were carried out in relation to the purchase of mobile equipment, they represented 89% of all investments. This was partly due to the actual demand and administrative procedures that stimulated these types of investments.

Open access

Jarosław M. Nazarczuk and Stanisław Umiński

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to present the spatial distribution of openness to foreign trade assessed at the local level (LAU 1, poviats) in Poland, between 2005 and 2012, with particular reference to its two determinants: activity of foreign-owned enterprises (FOEs) and functioning of special economic zones (SEZs). With the use of data from different sources, including the foreign trade statistics for the Polish regions, constituting a set of indicators on openness to foreign trade, we deliberate on the determinants and the character of regional openness, as well as the quality of the proxies used in order to assess their spatial distribution. Our results indicate high regional dissimilarities in terms of export activity, correlated with the broader picture of regional inequalities. The role of FOEs has been crucial in determining the spatial distribution of exports. As regards the SEZs, their sole contribution increased significantly during the time span. In the times of the world financial crisis, the export performance diversity of poviats increased temporarily but diminished afterwards.

Open access

Jitka Fialová, Pavla Kotásková, Jiří Schneider, Nikola Žmolíková and Pavlína Procházková

Abstract

An optional leisure activity in the countryside for wheelchair users is subject to discussion b in this article. Geo-caching is a leisure activity on the borders between tourism and sport, which appeals to a growing proportion of peoples globally. It can become a prospective part of social tourism as a leisure activity for persons with disabilities: this paper devotes attention to wheelchair users. In this research project we analysed how terrain difficulty and its markings reflect on the availability of caches to be gained by wheelchair users. The aim of the field survey was to verify if the caches indicated by the difficulty of the terrain (terrain level: 1 and 1.5) can be considered available for disabled people. The availability of the caches was also assessed based on the presence (aid) of an assistant. We found that access to most of the easily available caches contains small but critical constraints for wheelchair users – from path bumps to the very cache locations which are unreachable for wheelchair users. Therefore, we have proposed a set of recommendations and pictograms to make geo-caching more available for persons using wheelchairs and to expand their opportunities for active outdoor leisure activity. The results will be used to design access to natural sites for wheelchair users.

Open access

Kristína Bilková, František Križan, Marcel Horňák, Peter Barlík and Gabriel Zubriczký

Abstract

The retailing sector seems to be rather sensitive to social and economic developments in a society. In contrast to global retail network trends, specific processes may be observed in some lagging regions in post-communist countries. In the article attention is paid to spatial changes in food and non-food retailing locations in the region of Gemer, one of the least developed regions of post-communist Slovakia. The retailing network transformation between 1996 and 2012 was measured by applying retail capacity calculations for surplus or deficit, related to the population size of municipalities within the region. In the article, we examine food and non-food retail locations in the Gemer region with a special focus on spatial changes (urban vs rural) as well as temporal and trends based on retail capacity growth indices. In conclusion, the findings suggest that rural food and non-food retailing businesses have gone through considerable change and that it is not in harmony with the globalisation processes visible in the urban environment. Specifically, retail capacities (both food and nonfood) in the Gemer region are witnessing a period of growth.

Open access

Grzegorz W. Kołodko

Abstract

Two centuries ago, Asia delivered over 60 percent of world production; in the middle of the 20th century it was less than 20 percent. Currently, it is twice as large and this share is still increasing, above all but not only, because of China whose production is still growing at a rate twice as fast as the world average. China is trying to maintain high economic dynamics, inter alia, through investment external expansion. This aim is to be served, among others, by the infrastructure project, drawn up with enormous verve, known as the New Silk Road, which the Middle Kingdom addresses to 65 countries on three continents. While some hope for accelerating their own economic growth, others warn against the risk of becoming dependent on China. The article analyzes these challenges, pointing to the desired directions of irreversible evolution globalization by giving it a more inclusive character, which is also strongly emphasized by the Chinese authorities in their official enunciations.

Open access

Osmar Antonio Bonzanini, Tamara Silvana Menuzzi Diverio, Luiz Zuliani da Silva and Estevo Mateus Olesiak

Abstract

Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this article is to present the vision of ECLAC - Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean and its contribution to the reflections on economic development. Materials and methods: This is an exploratory and descriptive study. The first part of the paper contemplates the emergence and evolution of ECLAC thinking during its more than sixty-five years of existence. The second deals with dependency theory, ending with the current thinking proposed by ECLAC. Results: It results in a brief analysis of the moment of the globalization of the economy as an exclusionary process in the history of capitalism, emphasizing the importance of the ECLAC thinking, reinvigorated nowadays. Conclusions: It is considered that the dependency theory has been the great contribution of ECLAC thinking, with the change of focus from a viewpoint only from the prism of the central countries, to an optic from the point of view of the peripheral countries.

Open access

Sławomir Partycki and Dawid Błaszczak

Abstract

Summary Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study is to analyse the structure and the relation of the Polish-Belarusian cross-border cooperation network, to identify the key nodes in the network, to analyse the dynamics of connections between the actors, and to identify the most important changes in the structure of the network. Materials and methods: The article quotes the results of analyses of cross-border projects from 2004- 2017. The analysis includes projects completed, applicants, and partners of projects. The network analysis was carried out using Ucinet and NetDraw software. Results: The structure of the Polish-Belarusian cooperation is dominated by several large nodes, on the other hand there are many micronetworks - of three or four nodes, which are connected with each other. Conclusions: The Polish-Belarusian cooperation is of great importance for the international relations of the Polish state. Projects carried out by entities located at the border strengthen the cooperation, bringing a number of measurable benefits (hard and soft), depending on nature of the projects, as well as frequency and scale of the undertaken activities.

Open access

Sylwia Dudek-Mańkowska and Bartłomiej Iwańczak

Abstract

Research on gentrification has been conducted for over 50 years by representatives of many disciplines. Modern gentrification is a process somewhat different from that originally described by R. Glass in 1964. Authors do not agree how to measure the process, nor how to explain its meaning (Bourne, 1993). Creating the right indicators is very difficult, especially if it is widely believed that gentrification, as a process identifying changes over time and a way of measuring dynamics, should enable the comparison of data from multiple years (Lees, 2010). The aim of this study was to identify the socio-spatial changes taking place in the Warsaw district of Praga Północ and to determine if it can be described as gentrification. The study area is a district stereotypically perceived as neglected, dangerous and deteriorated (e.g. Dudek-Mańkowska, 2011), at the same time subject to strong functional changes. Praga Północ is also an area of interest to many artists, creative industries and developers, and is undergoing gradual regeneration through municipal urban revitalization programs. It is also an area that the media portray as undergoing the process of gentrification. The results show that social and residential changes actually take place but the overall gentrification has not been felt by residents.

Open access

Martin Kebza

Abstract

The process of peripheralisation of outlying areas is discussed in this article using a case study of West Pomeranian (Zachodniopomorskie) Voivodeship in Poland. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between these peripheral areas and metropolitan core areas. Scalar and vector data on selected indicators in the years 2005 and 2015 for gminas (communes, territorial units NUTS 5) are presented. The values for both years were observed as well as the change between them. A composite indicator based on the calculated data was developed, and it served as the basis for categorisation of metropolitan, ‘semi-peripheral’ and peripheral areas, which were further defined on the basis of their intrinsic properties and location in the region. The development of such peripheral areas is assessed more generally in the conclusions.