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Assessment of the influences of climate variability on nitrogen leaching rate into groundwater

Abstract

This article presents preliminary model results of climate change impact on biogeochemical processes in soil. With the use of DNDC (DeNitrification-DeComposition) model, a simulation with climate data over seventy years period (1947-2016) from central part of Slovenia has been carried out. Amongst assessed sources of variability, time variability has been estimated to around 10% of the total annual nitrogen leaching. In some cases, a statistically significant downward trend was observed with a 5 kg reduction in nitrogen per hectare in seventy years period. This study represents the first quantitative assessment of nitrogen leaching variability due to precipitation and air temperature variability in three representative soil profiles in the central Slovenia. It offers a starting point for future regional research for the purpose of farming practice optimization, especially in catchment areas of major regional water resources in Slovenia.

Open access
Bionics in Aviation

Abstract

In the paper bionics as a field of knowledge and inspiration in the aviation technologies is presented. Bionics is a branch of science on the borderline of art and biology that studies the way living organisms work, as well as their structure, in order to use the results to build technical devices. In the introduction part definition of bionics is described. In the next part of this document the aviation technologies inspired by nature is depicted. Then, technologies inspired by the butterfly wing are presented. The paper ends with conclusions.

Open access
Bonding of High Temperature Thermoplastic Carbon Composites with Resistance Welding Technique

Abstract

The article presents ‘state-of-the art’ on joining fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites with the use of resistance welding technique. Their welding process and potential difficulties connected with the process and quality control of a manufactured element are presented. The structure of a typical thermoplastic composite welding stand was also presented. The main welding technology elements were characterized: structure of the resistance element, implementation of the thermal process and pressure application required for joining materials. The paper also presents the required calibration ranges for a technological process with the use of strength test types SLS, DCB, SBS and nondestructive testing of joint with the ultrasonic method.

Open access
Computer-Assisted Design of Sheet Metal Component Formed from Stainless Steel

Abstract

The development of the product from stainless steel, which is produced for the client in large series, is presented. Technological optimisation was mainly focussed on the design of the deep drawing process in a single operation, which proved to be technologically unstable and therefore unfeasible for the prescribed shape of the product. Testing of prototype products showed unacceptable wrinkling due to the cone-shaped geometry of the workpiece. For this purpose, the research work was oriented towards technological optimisation of forming operations and set-up of proper phase plan in order to eliminate the wrinkling of the material. Testing of several different materials of the same quality was performed to determine the appropriate input parameters used for digital analyses. The analyses were focussed towards the set-up of optimal forming process and appropriate geometry of the corresponding tool, which allowed deep drawing of the workpiece without tearing and/or wrinkling of the material. Performed analyses of the forming process in the digital environment were tested with experiments, which showed a good correlation between the results of both development concepts.

Open access
Design of underground structures and analysis of self-support capacity

Abstract

The complicated rock structures and the stability of surrounding rocks of the underground powerhouse are key ground mechanical challenges for hydropower projects. In this paper, an example of contributing self-support capacity of rock mass to evaluate optimised support for long-term usage of structure is given. It describes importance of investigations in the initial in situ stress distribution, rock mechanical and geological properties, engineering rock mass classifications by different methods, numerical modelling, comparison of tools for stability and support analysis and proper stability control for rock excavation and support. The results show that after underground excavations in hard rock, detailed analysis of measures to investigate deformation and self-supporting capacity creation is useful and a cost-saving procedure.

Open access
Determination of Emissivity of Brass Alloy using Infrared Thermographic Technique

Abstract

This paper presents the experimental determination of the dependence of emissivity of brass on surface roughness and temperature. The investigation was conducted using the infrared thermographic technique on brass alloy C27200 workpieces with different degrees of surface roughness, during the continuous cooling process. The results obtained showed that the emissivity of the chosen brass alloy increases with greater surface roughness and decreases during the cooling process, its value ranging from 0.07 to 0.19. It was concluded that surface roughness has a greater influence on the increase of the emissivity at higher temperatures, which can be seen in the three-dimensional infrared images. Multiple regression analysis confirmed a strong correlation between the examined parameters and the emissivity, and an original multiple regression model was determined.

Open access
Flight Tests of Turboprop Engine with Reverse Air Intake System

Abstract

This work presents selected results of I-31T propulsion flight tests, obtained in the framework of ESPOSA (Efficient Systems and Propulsion for Small Aircraft) project. I-31T test platform was equipped with TP100, a 180 kW turboprop engine. Engine installation design include reverse flow inlet and separator, controlled from the cockpit, that limited ingestion of solid particulates during ground operations. The flight tests verified proper air feed to the engine with the separator turned on and off. The carried out investigation of the intake system excluded possibility of hazardous engine operation, such as compressor stall, surge or flameout and potential airflow disturbance causing damaging vibration of the engine body. Finally, we present evaluation of total power losses associated with engine integration with the airframe.

Open access
Groundwater Occurrence from Hydrogeomorphological Study of Hard Rock Terrain of Part of Southwestern Nigeria

Abstract

Studies of structural and hydrogeomorphological units (HGU) that are indicators of groundwater occurrence were carried out across an area extent of more than 700 km2 within the hard rock terrain of southwestern Nigeria. These studies integrated geological remote sensing techniques (RST) and geographical information system (GIS) methods to generate thematic maps that included elevation, drainage, lineaments and vegetation index for characterising the attributes of groundwater occurrence across the area. The results revealed that the lineament system is mainly rectilinear with major trends of NNW-SSE and NE-SW on the gneiss, NW-SE and NE-SW on porphyritic granite and NNE-SSW, NW-SE and E-W on migmatite. The discharge zones in the area are the lowland terrains underlain by gneiss and amphibolite. Similarly, variably directional discontinuities that are related to rock contacts are equally laden with groundwater. Conversely, the recharge areas are the high-lying terrains characterised by higher fracture density and underlain by porphyritic granite and migmatite. Additionally, there are evidences of groundwater seepage along the major river channels. Therefore, besides the rock structures, landform is another crucial factor that guides groundwater distribution in the study area.

Open access
Obtaining a new kind of organic fertilizer on the basis of low-grade phosphorite of Central Kyzylkum

Abstract

The paper presents the results of processing low-grade phosphorites by microorganisms of activated sludge from the biochemical purification production unit of JSC “Navoiazot”. The obtained results on the leaching of rare and rare-earth elements into the liquid phase make it possible to separate them and thus enrich the phosphorites. Other options are the gravitational separation of the crushed calcite particles. In addition to this, there is a real possibility of creating complex organomineral fertilisers.

Open access
Preliminary Design Analysis of Regenerative Cooling for N2O/Alcohol Small Scale Liquid Rocket Engine

Abstract

This paper presents a concept of a small scale liquid-propellant rocket engine designed in AGH Space Systems for sounding rocket. During preliminary design of thermal aspects various ways of cooling were evaluated and described. Possible issues and design approaches for ablative, radiation and regenerative cooling are raised. The authors describe available solutions. Regenerative cooling is especially concerned as it is most popular solution in bi-liquid engines, in which alcohol fuel acts as coolant and is preheated before it reaches combustion chamber. To estimate a possible temperature distribution - and thus an applicability of such a system in the engine - a mathematical model of heat transfer was developed. Unique element of said engine is its oxidizer - nitrous oxide, which have been rarely used to date. Comparison between typical LOX bi-liquids is given and major differences that affect cooling arrangement are discussed. The authors compared different combinations of coolants, fuel/oxidizer ratios etc. to optimize the temperature distribution which is a key factor for the engine performance.

Open access