The hazards that have cross-border consequences and represent a great problem for communities, become an obstacle to sustainable development and lead to disasters when combined with vulnerability and insufficient capacity to mitigate the risk. A short overview of research already implemented and in progress presents us a shift in systematic evaluation of the hazards and disasters at local and areal level. Hazard assessment of natural disasters (earthquakes, landslides and floods) on these scales can give results which can be directly used to take right decisions regarding preventive measures and plan effective actions of post-event management. The issue is widely recognized in the european union (eu) implicitly also in the black sea area, and a lot of efforts have already been made to mitigate the effects of disasters, obviously through the formation of numerous eu institution, established organizations and funded projects. The key elements for an effective mitigation of natural disasters are hazard identification and risk assessment, which must be based on scientifically grounded methodologies, reliable and accurate data. Successful resolution of the issues mentioned above will provide the ability to systematically assess natural disasters on regional and local scales, even in cross-border areas, by providing comparable hazard maps that will support the decision-making process in relation to mitigation measures required. The effective way of action against them is by providing applied research and technology transfer between partners in different countries by solving the problems such as lack of reliable information and lack of 'common ground' in the methodologies used to assess natural hazards and adopted procedures for mitigation.
Climate projections have revealed the perspective of changing the climate of the world's wine regions in the coming decades by diversifying heliothermal resources. Research in the Cotnari winegrowing region over the past decade has shown that the local climate has been affected by such developments especially after 1980. This research continues the series of studies on the climate of the Cotnari winegrowing region through projections of the climatic conditions for the 2020-2100 time period based on the RCP 4.5 scenario. Average annual temperature, warmest month temperature, precipitation during the growing season, length of the growing season and the Huglin, IAOe and AvGST bioclimatic indices for the 2020-2050, 2051-2080 and 2081-2100 time periods indicate the evolution of Cotnari area climate towards suitability for red wines and loss of suitability for the white wines. Climatic suitability classes for wine production, shift between 2020-2100 to the higher, cooler zone of the winegrowing region, narrowing down their surface and disappearing successively at the maximum altitude of 315 m asl. They are further replaced from the lower zone by classes specific to warmer climates. The suitability for white wines, specific to wine region, disappears at the maximum altitude of 315 m asl around 2060, being replaced by climate suitability for the red wine production. The average temperature of the growing season will exceed 19.5°C after 2080, becoming unsuitable for the production of red quality wines of Cabernet Sauvingnon variety. After 2050, in the lower zone of the winegrowing region the warm IH5 class, suitable for Mediterranean varieties such as Carignan and Grenache will install, as compared to temperate IH3 class which characterizes today the lower zone and allows the production of white wines of the local Feteasca albă, Grasa de Cotnari, Frâncușa and Tămâioasa românească varieties. The results suggest the need to develop strategies for adapting the viticulture of the Cotnari area to climate change.
Majid Muneer, Muhammad Saeed, Ijaz Ahmad Bhatti, Atta-ul Haq, Muhammad Kaleem Khosa, Muhammad Asghar Jamal and Saddaqat Ali
Synthetic dyes are persistent pollutants with poor biodegradability. The present study is about the degradation of direct Congo red dye in aqueous media using the Co-60 gamma radiation source. The experimental conditions such as gamma-ray absorbed doses, amount of oxidant (H2O2) and pH conditions were evaluated. The λmax of dye solution was noted as 498 nm, and then, decrease in absorbance and reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were examined. The complete colour removal of dye was observed at 5 kGy, while a significant COD removal was observed at 15 kGy gamma-ray absorbed dose in conjunction with oxidant for 50 mg/L concentration. It was found that pH has no influence on degradation efficiency. A possible degradation pathway was proposed. The radiolytic end products were monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to explore the degradation mechanism. It was imperative to study the oxidative degradation pathway to provide directions for potential applicability of advanced oxidation process (AOP) in industrial wastewater treatment.
Gheorghe Duca, Maria Nedealcov, Serghei Travin and Viorica Gladchi
The actual period marred by the global warming requires expanding our knowledge on the regional particularities of climate changes manifestations as consequences of global climatic changes. It was stated that within the limits of Republic of Moldova’s territory the pace of warming is much more accelerated than the global one. These consequences, in their turn, had led to the increase in degree of evaporation of surface waters, which had conditioned the doubling of still water’s pollution in the region (Lake Beleu). We consider that the obtained results could contribute to the adequate management of water resources in the new climatic conditions.
Ion Constantin, Baltag Emanuel Ştefan, Ursu Adrian, Sfîcă Lucian, Ignat Alina Elena and Stoleriu Cristian Constantin
The avian habitats in Eastern Europe are poorly managed in last decades. It is of highly noteworthy influence importance to obtain more information regarding the link between birds’ presence and environmental features in wetlands to improve this poorly managed system. In our study we investigated the effects of the various habitat, landscape fragmentation and weather variables on the bird assemblages in Eastern Romania, described by diversity, species richness and abundance of non-passerine birds in wetlands. Poisson regression modelling revealed wetland area, wetland heterogeneity, proportion of open-water, density of patches and habitats, landscape shape and temperature conditions have a noteworthy influence on the bird assemblages (p<0,05). Our results suggest that the link between environmental features and birds’ assemblage, in our study areas could be dependent on the presence of the emergent vegetation (shelter / reproduction zones), the balance between open-water area (feeding / nesting zones) and also other variables, as the temperature, the presence of the human living facilities and/or intensive fish nurseries in the neighboring zones. Waterbird distribution and abundance in eastern part of Romania are driven by similar factors to other part of the world and this study could be one of the first published on the topic in a region where It is a lack of information on waterbirds ecology. Such studies would bring valuable information about the ecologic factors influencing the lives of the birds, in the areas that were not stueid before, resulting in better conservation efforts and wetland protection, in estern part of Europe.
To investigate the retention efficiency and mechanism of nitrogen of Vegetative filter strips (VFSs) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir area, simulated runoff discharging experiments were carried out in a new-established Bermuda VFS. The results showed that the Bermuda VFS reduced 73.1-86.1 % of surface runoff through infiltration. The outflow rate of runoff increased first and then became stable with time. The concentration reduction rates (CRRs) and load reduction rates (LRRs) of NH3-N increased initially and then decreased with the increase of inflow concentration. The average CRRs and LRRs of NH3-N in three treatments ranged 66.1-90.3 % and 90.0-96.7 %, respectively. The concentration reduction of NH3-N was primarily achieved by soil adsorption. The optimal inflow concentration of NH3-N for the optimum CRR was between 0.65 and 3.52 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of NO3-N fluctuated between 6.8-14.0 % and 72.0-77.9 % in three treatments. The concentration reduction of NO3-N was primarily achieved by plant uptake and soil microbe assimilation. The optimal inflow concentration of NO3-N for optimum CRR exceeded 6.78 mg/dm3. The CRRs and LRRs of TN increased with the increase of inflow concentrations. The average CRRs in the low, moderate and high treatments reached 9.7, 14.8 and 27.4 %, respectively, and the average LRRs reached 72.1, 74.3 and 81.2 %, respectively. The optimal inflow concentration of TN for optimum CRR exceeded 10.21 mg/dm3. The study showed that Bermuda grass can retain nitrogen in runoff efficiently and should be promoted around the Danjiangkou reservoir.
Deposit salt in Romania has extremely important reserves, considered even inexhaustible at the current exploitation level. The biggest salt resources are found in the intra-Carpathian arch, represented by Transylvania and Maramures. Most sources of salt outcrops are disseminated on the edge of the Transylvania Depression, in the diapir folds formed following salt migration. The salt mines – Turda, Praid, Ocna Mures, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu, Cojocna, Ocna Sugatag – represented an important source of incomes, reason for which important human settlements formed around them. All these localities have turned nowadays into balneal and climacteric resorts that fully use the beneficial effect of the atmosphere within galleries (Praid, Turda). The most important incomes from tourism are represented by the galleries of the mines of Turda (one of the 10 wonders of the modern world) and Praid. The balneal and climacteric resorts also developed around the salt lakes installed in the areas of collapsed mines: Sovata, Ocna Sibiu, Ocna Dej, Cojocna. The most well known human settlements and the most important balneal and climacteric resorts, implicitly, are disseminated on the external branch of the Transylvania Depression (Sovata, Praid, Ocna Mures, Baile Figa, Cojocna thermae, Ocna Dej, Ocna Sibiu) and of the Maramures Depression (Ocna Sugata, Costiui, Vad). The oldest mining exploitation is situated at Figa (county of Bistrita-Nasaud) was founded around the year AD 3000. From this point of view, it is one of the oldest mining exploitations on Earth. The existence of the world-important archaeological site can invigorate the development of the surrounding localities, but mostly of the city of Beclean.
Krzysztof Gondek, Monika Mierzwa-Hersztek, Michał Kopeć, Jakub Sikora, Tomáš Lošák and Piotr Grzybowski
In the course of analysing sewage sludge biochar (BC) as a material containing phosphorus loads, we determined the following: effect of thermal conversion of three different sewage sludge biochars on the content and availability of P in biochars (BC-1, BC-2 BC-3), effect of their application on selected forms of P in soil and on the accumulation of this component in Poa pratensis L. biomass. Regardless of the type of BC, the contents of P-H2O and P-CaCl2 were lower than the contents determined in unconverted sewage sludge. A significant increase in the content of P-CaCl2 compared to the control was noted in the soil of treatments where 1 and 2 % additions of BC-2 and BC-3 were applied. Soil pH (r = 0.826; p ≤ 0.05) and the content of Ca-exchangeable (r = 0.712; p ≤ 0.05) had the strongest effect on the content of P-CaCl2 in soil; however, no significant relationship was found between the amount of P-introduced with BC, the contents of Al-ox., Fe-ox. and the content of P-CaCl2. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) increase in the phosphorus content in plant biomass was noted in all treatments compared to the control. Regardless of the type of biochar applied, the highest amount of P-uptake was determined in treatments where the greatest addition of BC (2 %) was introduced into the soil. A significant relationship between P-uptake and the amount of P-introduced with BC into the soil (r = 0.726; p ≤ 0.05) was demonstrated.
Liliana Cepoi, Inga Zinicovscaia, Tatiana Chiriac, Liudmila Rudi, Nikita Yushin and Vera Miscu
In order to assess ability of Spirulina platensis to recover silver and gold ions from the environment the bioaccumulation of silver and gold ions and their effect on growth, proteins and carbohydrates content of Spirulina platensis biomass was studied. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) in concentration range 0.01-1 mg/dm3 and tetrachloroaurate Na[AuCl4] in concentration range 18.5-370 mg/dm3 were added as component of the Spirulina platensis cultivation medium. In case of silver two cultivation media were studied: standard and Cl-free. The process of silver and gold uptake was traced using neutron activation analysis. Presence of silver ions in standard cultivation medium reduced biomass productivity by 66 %, while in Cl-free biomass productivity was reduced by 11.8 % only. The reduction of proteins content by 30 % in Cl-free medium and by 19 % in standard medium was also observed. The experiments showed that in case of gold ions loading, the biomass productivity and protein content were reduced only at high Na[AuCl4] concentration in the medium. The behaviour of carbohydrates content change was similar under silver and gold loadings: decrease at low metal concentration followed by increase at high metal concentrations. Scanning electron microscopy allowed observation of spherical metal nanoparticles, which were formed extracellularly during silver and gold bioaccumulation. Spirulina platensis can be used for recovery of precious metals as well as metal nanoparticles production.
Sergio X. Lima, Karolina P. S. Costa, Zelmo R. Lima, Fagner C. Rother, Olga M. O. Araujo, Helio C. Vital, Tercio Brum, Wilson F. R. S. Junior, Jose Carlos C. Amorim, Matthew J. F. Healy and Edson R. Andrade
The detonation of an (hypothetical) improvised nuclear device (IND) can generate atmospheric release of radioactive material in the form of particles and dust that ultimately contaminate the soil. In this study, the detonation of an IND in an urban area was simulated, and its effects on humans were determined. The risk of solid cancer development due to radiation was calculated by taking into account prompt radiation and whole-body exposure of individuals near the detonation site up to 10 km. The excess relative risk (ERR) of developing solid cancer was evaluated by using the mathematical relationships from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies and those from the HotSpot code. The methodology consists of using output data obtained from simulations performed with the HotSpot health physics code plugging in such numbers into a specific given equation used by RERF to evaluate the resulting impact. Such a preliminary procedure is expected to facilitate the decision-making process significantly.