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Open access

Arturs Pilkevics, Rasma Jansone and Inese Bautre

Abstract

An innovative planning and assessment tool for the subject of Physical Education (PE) on the secondary school level has been created in the course of this research project. Evaluation of the research on the Latvian assessment system in PE has shown the current need for an online based curriculum planning tool (e-planner) which would help teachers to effectively and qualitatively determine the levels of knowledge, skills, personal trait attributes and development dynamics in PE. This finding has served as basis for the hypothesis of the work: creating an e-planner will have a positive influence on the planning and evaluation processes in the subject of Physical Education on secondary level. The author set put to determine the theoretical foundation and the desired content of the E-planner according to the curriculum standard of PE on the secondary level in Latvia and create the planner based on the free Google Forms online platform. Study included the evaluation of teachers’ opinion about using the E-planner for planning and evaluation purposes. The result of this project is the first on-line curriculum planning tool in the Latvian language which is based on the modern theoretical understanding of student-centered planning and the assessment approach in education. Implementing such a tool on a state level across the disciplines would improve the quality of planning and instruction in schools.

Open access

Arne Martin Jakobsen

Abstract

The aim of this study was to explore which motives dominate among adolescents when it comes to participation in individual versus team sports. We expected that intrinsic motives will dominate in both groups. We also had a hypothesis that those who compete in individual sport will have higher scores on intrinsic and lower on extrinsic motivation than those in team sport. We also expected that intrinsic motives would explain why they had chosen individual sports instead of team sport. The participants were 78 athletes, 39 in team sports and 39 in individual. Participants’ motives were assessed with the Motives for Physical Activity Measure - Revised (MPAM-R). The extrinsic motive “fitness” had highest score in both groups, followed by the intrinsic motives “interest/enjoyment” and “competence”. The only motive with a difference between team and individual sport was the intrinsic motive interest/enjoyment. The participants in team sport had a higher score on interest/enjoyment than those in individual sport. We conducted a regression analyze to explain why pupils chose individual instead of team sports. “Interest/enjoyment” had an explanation when we included this as a single independent variable. If they participated in team sport they had a higher score on the intrinsic motive “interest/enjoyment”. When we included all the motives none of them had an explanation. In conclusion we could not find any differences in motives for participation in team versus individual sport. We also only partly found support for the assumption that adolescents mostly are intrinsic motivated for participating in sport.

Open access

Attila Szabo, Attila Szűcs, Zoltán Gáspár and Krisztina Süle

Abstract

Justification and aim of the study: Successful athletes tend to approach contest situations with different psychological mind-set than their less successful counterparts. The aim of this repeated-measures design study was to assess whether a successful (national league third rank) and a less successful (11th rank) first division women’s basketball team differ in anxiety, positive affect, and negative affect before six consecutive games in the annual championship. Methods: Two psychometrically validated questionnaires, the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (SCAT; Martens et al., 1990) and the Positive Affect Negative Affect Scale (PANAS; Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988) were used to measure pre-competitive anxiety and positive-and negative affect. The scales were completed by first division female basketball players, who were members of either the successful or the less successful team, before six matches; three played at home and three played away from home. Results: Successful players reported lower anxiety before games (effect size (Cohen’s d = 1.2) than less successful players. Both teams displayed more positive affect before the games played at home than before the games played away from home (d = .44). However, ratings of the subjective states varied substantially across the games. Conclusion: The results, interpreted in light of an interactional model (Cerin et al., 2000), show that subjective appraisal of each competition situation yields very specific or unique expectations, which in turn determine the psychological states of the players before the upcoming contest.

Open access

Lilita Ozoliņa, Inese Pontaga and Igors Ķīsis

Abstract

The aim of our investigation was to determine and compare the pre- and post- training body hydration status in professional and amateur male ice hockey players consumed the drinks according to their thirst sensation in winter conditions. Materials and methods: 11 amateur and 23 professional ice hockey players participated in the investigation. The players were weighted before and after training using precise scales. The body mass composition of every athlete was determined by the body composition analyzer. Every player collected mid–stream urine specimens before and after the training. Urine specific gravity (USG) was measured by urine refractometer. Results: 56% of the professional ice hockey players and 82% of amateur players were hypohydrated before training according to their USG values ≥ 1.020, 5% of professional players were dehydrated their USG values ≥ 1.030. After the training with duration of 1.5 hours the mean body mass decreased for 0.9±0.5% of pre– training value in amateur players and for 1.6±0.8% in professionals (p=0.005). After the training the professional players’ hydration status worsened: 66% were hypohydrated and 26% dehydrated according to USG, the mean USG after training was significantly higher than before it (p=0.011). USG after training did not change in amateur players: their mean USG values before and after training did not differed significantly (p=0.677). Conclusions: Fluid uptake according to thirst sensation in winter conditions cannot compensate the fluid loss at rest and during training especially in professional ice hockey players. The body mass loss exceeded value critical for performance - 2 % in one third part of professionals. The differences between two groups can be explained by higher intensity of exercises during training, the better physical conditioning and greater sweating rate in professional players in comparison with amateurs, which causes close to twice greater uncompensated fluid loss in professionals than in amateurs.

Open access

Johnny Nilsson, Asbjörn Gjerset, Egil Johansen and Mikkel Lund

Abstract

The purpose was to study how important stride parameters such as the cycle duration, electromoygraphical (EMG) burst duration and activation level change with running speed and with change in terrain and ground conditions. In total six male regional to national level elite orienteers participated in the study. Mean (range), height and weight were 25 (19-32) years, 180 (1.74-1.88)m and 71 (67-75)kg. Hip joint angular displacement was determined by means of an electrogoniometer. The electrical activity in m. vastus lateralis (VL) of the right leg was recorded with bipolar surface electrodes taped over the belly of the muscles. Electrogoniometric and EMG data were recorded by means of a portable data logger at a rate of 1000 Hz. The time between markers in test intervals was recorded by means of an ultra sound based timing system (Time-it, Eleiko AB, Sweden). The participating orienteers performed, after a warming up period, runs on four different horizontal ground surfaces; gravel road, forest terrain (low density undergrowth), timber felling and wet moss. The recordings were done during running in four different constant self determined speeds: slow, medium, fast (competition speed) and maximum speed. The cycle duration decreased in a similar manner with speed during running in all the tested terrain conditions and gravel road. The burst duration of the knee extensor m. vastus lateralis showed the same trend as the change in cycle duration with speed. The same increasing trend in mean EMG activation level with speed is seen in all terrain conditions and gravel road. However, specific differences between terrain and surface conditions in cycle duration, burst duration and EMG amplitude were present.

Open access

Saha Sukanta

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify the effect of somatotype and body composition variables on leg explosive power of college level men students. The sample consisted of 500 young college students, divided into two groups: athletes (N= 250) undergoing Bachelor of Physical Education course whose mean age 23.86 ± 0.36 years; and non-athletes (N= 250) college students who do not take part regular physical activities and mean age 22.16 ± 0.88 years. The somatotype was assessed using the Heath & Carter method. Assessing body composition of the subject various anthropometric measurements were taken. Sargent vertical jump test was used to measure leg explosive power. The measures were compared between the two groups using the Student t-test for independent samples. The two groups differed significantly (p≤0.01) in terms of body weight, % body fat, lean body mass, % skeletal muscle mass and somatotype. The findings of the present study showing that athlete have higher mean values in leg explosive power (p≤0.01) than non-athlete. The leg explosive power was positively significantly (p≤0.01) correlated with % skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass, mesomorphy and ectomorphy components of somatotype; on the other hand body weight, height, % body fat, body surface area and endomorphy component of somatotype significantly (p≤0.01) negatively correlated. In conclusion, somatotype and body composition variables are important factors in determining leg explosive power.

Open access

Krzysztof Piech, Jakub Piech and Juris Grants

Abstract

The topic of Nordic walking shows the main points of scientific interest concerning form of physical exercise. Existing research mainly focuses on presenting it as beneficial for the elderly. The authors of the topic are presenting the advantages of pole walking for distinctive age groups. There are a number of publications concerning elderly women specifically. Nordic walking is also an object of interest in biomechanical studies. There is an apparent shortage of publications on the utility of this kind of physical activity for children and the young. This seems to be a frequent shortcoming of the research methodology, as it is difficult to deduce whether the study is based on the correct Nordic walking technique or rather on walking with poles as a bracing device. At the same time there is no data concerning Nordic walking as a competitive sport which has been developing dynamically.

Open access

Alvis Paeglitis, Indulis Kukulis, Egils Eglitis and Zinta Galeja

Abstract

It is known that metabolic activity of muscle cells even in one separate muscle differs. If VO2 rate differs between muscle’s motor units, then blood flow through capillaries supplying muscle cells must be regulated according to their metabolic activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle blood flow and compare it with active muscle cell metabolic activity during muscle prolonged static voluntary contraction with different contraction forces. In this study participated 37 healthy untrained people in age 24 – 36. Investigations were performed on the forearm muscles using hand grip exercises with 10% and 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) Volume blood flow in the forearm segment (I) and capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) were measured using venous occlusion plethysmographic device “KPOBOTOK-4”. VO2 and lactate delivery (La) were calculated from pO2 and lactate concentration arterio-venous differences and I in every controlled moment. pH and pO2 was measured using bioanaliser ABC-1”RADIOMETER”. Lactate concentration was measured using BIOSEN C-line “EKF diagnostic” device. During 10% MVC it was shown that I, VO2, La and CFC till the cessation of exercise caused by exhaustion which takes 42±1,1min stabilize on appropriate level not reaching maximal possible values. Increasing contraction force only for 5% it is to 15% MVC all examined parameters during exercise till exhaustion which takes 12±0,8 min, increases and at moment of cessation of exercise reaches their maximal values. Increasing of blood supply and VO2 during 15% MVC did not provide prolonged forearm contraction and exhaustion occurs more than 3 times quicker neither during 10% MVC.

Open access

Aleksandra Čuprika and Andra Fernāte

Abstract

Origination of physical activities in Latvia territory, the necessity for sports sector to be developed, as well as the change of people’s understanding about physical loads and the essence of active lifestyle caused by rapid growth of the fitness sector where the main principle is load applied to strengthen and improve one’s health condition. One of the most important problems is a uniform understanding of the term “fitness”, and its place in the sports sector in Latvia. Therefore the aim of the article is to evaluate fitness as structure element inclusion possibilities in the Sports Structure in Latvia. The research is based on the investigation and analysis of the literature sources and sports policy planning documents, such as “Basic Positions of Sport Policy in Latvia”, project 2013-2020, “National Sport Development Program 2006–2013” of Latvia, “National Development Plan of Latvia 2012–2020”. The place of fitness in the sports system in Latvia, the necessity and possibility to include fitness in the “National Sport Development Program” and in the “Basic Positions of Sport Policy” in perspective were studied. Commercial fitness clubs and the Latvian Fitness and Health Promotion Association (LFVVNA) are not included in the sports structure of Latvia; however, fitness is socially-cultural phenomenon which is necessary to be included in the development program of sport sector.