Browse

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 4,996 items for :

Clear All
Open access

Tomasz Tumiel and Paweł Mirski

Abstract

Although studies on many owl species diets are common, there are only scarce data on the diet of the boreal owl from the lowlands of Eastern Europe. We have therefore studied its diet in one of the most important Polish population areas, the Knyszyflska Forest (north-eastern Poland). Pellets were gathered between February and June in 2006, 2012–2016 from tree hollows and the ground underneath. Altogether 178 pellets and six sets of pellet fragments were collected from 19 different sites. Eight mammal and eight bird species were identified among the 213 prey items found in the gathered material. Small mammals dominated, both in prey number (88.3%) and biomass (85.1 %). Bank vole proved to be the main prey (over 40% of prey numbers), while Microtus voles (27.3%), small passerine birds (11.7%) and shrews (7.5%) were important alternative prey. Diet range proved to be similar to other sites in Europe.

Open access

Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Agnieszka Tomczyk-Warunek, Marta Ejtel, Izabela Świetlicka and Bożena Gładyszewska

Abstract

Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.

Open access

Eugenio Muscianese, Giuseppe Martino, Pasquale Sgro, Sergio Scebba and Michele Sorrenti

Abstract

The European Commission has established that pre-nuptial migration of the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos in Italy begins in the second decade (10-day period) of January. This three-year study was carried out at two localities in the Calabria region of southern Italy from 2012 to 2014, with 3-4 ringing sessions every decade from mid-January to the end of March. In total, 447 birds were captured. Based on catching dynamics and changes in fat load and body mass, we documented that the species’ northward migration took place in mainly March, with early movements in February. As no migratory activity was detected before the second decade of February, the dates of the hunting season in this area can be re-considered.

Open access

O. V. Zhovnerchuk and P. Ya. Chumak

Abstract

The spider mite Schizotetranychus spireafolia Garman, 1940 is found on plants of the genus Spiraea L. in A. V. Fomin Botanical Garden, Kyiv (Ukraine). Th is is the second record of the species in Ukraine. Th e species diagnosis with measurements of body, legs and dorsal setae for male and female mites was given. New data on distribution, ecology of mites is obtained, and damage to plants was described for the first time. Th e pest density was different on various species, forms and sorts of Spiraea L. plants, and did not depend on leaf pubescence.

Open access

Mark Nelson

Abstract

The Biosphere 2 project, a 1.2 hectare materially-closed mini-biosphere that supported teams of biospherian crews from 1991-1994 provides a host of ecological and human-biosphere lessons relevant to our global biospheric challenges. Because of its high visibility through worldwide media coverage, the project advanced public understanding of what a biosphere is and the roles that humans can constructively play in keeping ecosystems and atmosphere healthy. The present paper reviews the fairly recent scientific understanding of our global biosphere and some of the intriguing results from Biosphere 2. It also examines some of the reasons that Biosphere 2 aroused controversy because of narrow definitions and expectations of how science is to be conducted. The cooperation between engineers and ecologists and the requirement to design a technosphere for Biosphere 2 that supported the life inside without harming it has enormous relevance to what is required in our global home. There was an unexpected and profound connection that the ‘biospherian’ crew inside Biosphere 2 felt to their living biosphere. Biosphere 2 also demonstrated new kinds of roles that can be played by people aware of a biosphere as their life support system.

Open access

Maciej Bąkowski, Bożena Kiczorowska, Wioletta Samolińska, Renata Klebaniuk and Antoni Lipiec

Abstract

The use of metal nanoparticles as supplements of animal diets does not always bring unambiguous results. There are many reports in the literature about the multifaceted effects of this type of supplementation on the animal organism. Therefore, the aim of the paper is to present the current knowledge of the possible application of nanometal forms in animal nutrition and its potential benefits and threats. The positive effect of nanoparticles used as feed additives has most frequently been reflected in an increase in body weight, higher average daily gain, or improvement of the FCR value. In some cases, however, the effect of nanoparticle addition to diets was indiscernible. The potent antibacterial activity of nanoparticles, especially against Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria, is regarded as a positive effect. In turn, the probability of their toxicity is a potential risk in application thereof. Supplementation of diets with nanometals has been accompanied by pathological changes in animal tissues, primarily in the pancreas, kidney, liver, rumen, abomasum, small intestine, adrenal glands, and brain. Additionally, at the the cellular level, nanoparticles were found to induce toxicity, inflammatory excitation, and cell death. Oral administration of nanoparticles induced a risk of malfunction of the nervous system and even impairment of cognitive processes in animals. The increasing knowledge of the possible toxic effects of nanoparticles on the animal organism suggests caution in their use in animal production and necessitates further precise investigations in this area.

Open access

O. Varga

Abstract

A list of the Carpathian species of the tribe Ephialtini associated with spider hosts is provided. Totally, 33 species are present in the region, 27 of them in the Ukrainian part and 22 in Romania. Acrodactyla quadrisculpta (Gravenhorst, 1820), Clistopyga canadensis Provancher, 1880, Schizopyga frigida Cresson, 1870, the genus Sinarachna Townes, 1960, with two species, S. nigricornis (Holmgren, 1860) and S. pallipes (Holmgren, 1860), Tromatobia lineatoria (Villers, 1789), and Zatypota discolor (Holmgren, 1860) are recorded for Ukraine for the fi rst time. Clistopyga sziladyi Kiss, 1959 and Polysphincta vexator Fitton, Shaw & Gauld, 1988 are new Romanian records. Polysphincta longa Kasparyan, 1976 is a new record for Ukraine and Romania. A redescription of Schizopyga coxator Constantineanu, 1973 and illustrated comparative notes about S. coxator and S. circulator (Panzer, 1800) are provided. Th e paper also contains an illustrated key to European species of the genus Clistopyga Gravenhorst, 1829.

Open access

A. Vlaschenko and A. Naglov

Abstract

Monitoring of bats in hibernacula is a key element for the estimation of long-term population trends in Northern hemisphere bats. However, there is currently limited winter bat monitoring data from Ukraine, making long-term population estimates diffi cult. We present data on bat population monitoring in the largest bat hibernacula in North-Eastern Ukraine (Liptsy mines). Between 1999-2010 we conducted 115 censuses inside the three mines and counted 1150 specimens of M. daubentonii, M. dasycneme and P. auritus. 385 individuals of the same species were captured by mist-nets (39 nights). Th e yearly average temperature in the Liptsy 1 mine is close to the mean of annual temperature in the Kharkiv Region (about +7 .C); the humidity ranged from 85-100 %. Th e mean number of bats counted in a visit ranged from 1.4 to 4.9 bats, and 28 in one case. Great fl uctuations in bat number were noted in Liptsy 1 and Liptsy 3-4 mines. Th ere were high bat numbers (up to one hundred individuals on average) in the winters 2000- 2001 and 2007-2008, and low bat number in winters 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. Th e species relative abundance for M. daubentoniiwas - 75-90 %, P. auritus - 7-20 %, M. dasycneme - 1-10 % respectively.

Open access

Alena Pechová and Andrea Nečasová

Abstract

Ketosis is still an important problem which must be solved in dairy herds. Early precise diagnosis and proper evaluation of the cause of the disease is essential for good management of ketosis on dairy farms. The aim of our work was to analyse the occurrence of rumen dysfunction in connection with subclinical ketosis in dairy herds and to evaluate the relationships between beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration in blood and metabolic parameters in blood, urine and rumen fluid. We analysed the results of metabolic profile tests performed in dairy cattle herds from 1,338 cows. The concentration of BHB significantly correlated with glucose, NEFA (nonesterified fatty acids), bilirubin, AST (aspartate aminotransferase), GGT (γ-glutamyl transferase), urea, magnesium and calcium in blood serum and with following parameters of rumen fluid – acetate, propionate, butyrate, acetate/propionate and infusoria. Significant but weak correlations were found between BHB and urine parameters (pH, specific gravity, potassium, magnesium, chloride). Subclinical ruminal acidosis was found in 23.1% and 16.7% of dairy cows with light (BHB 1.2–2 mmol/L) and more severe subclinical ketosis (BHB >2 mmol/L) and simple ruminal indigestion in 16.7% and 30%, respectively. On the basis of performed analysis we can conclude that rumen dysfunction is an important factor for the development of ketosis. Veterinary practitioners should suggest checking the feeding management in their diagnostic work with the aim to distinguish primary and secondary ketosis. Only complex and precise diagnostic work allows applying correct and successful therapy not only for individual animals but also for herd health management.

Open access

M. F. Kovtun, I. O. Lykova and L. P. Kharchenko

Abstract

The results of the macro-micromorphological structure of the digestive system of the waders and comparative analysis with the migrants of the Aves are presented. It was revealed that the digestive system of waders at the anatomical level has a universal structure typical for representatives of class Aves. As a result of histological studies of the structure of the digestive tract, it was found that the feature of the wall of the waders small intestine is the dense location of the crypt in its own plate of the mucous membrane throughout its length. High proliferative capacity of cambial crypt cells and their multilayered location provide high secretory and regenerative activity of enterocytes, which helps to restore the mucous membrane and intensify the digestive processes, especially during the active feeding of the waders at the migration stopover points. At this time, the length and mass of the intestine, the mass of the stomach and the liver increase, what is considered as a reaction to a large number of feeds in the intensive feeding of birds and indicates the plasticity of their digestive system. It is shown that the change in the morphometric parameters of the waders digestive system organs depending on the migration situation is an integral part of the adaptive mechanism of the migratory birds, which provides the basic need of the organism - fat accumulation. Th e content of general liver lipids, abdominal fat and thoracic muscles in 6 species of tundra warblers with varying degrees of fat accumulation at the migration stopover points in the Azov-Black Sea region was studied.