Browse

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 2,051 items for :

  • Substances and Products x
Clear All
Open access

P. Prabhakaran, R. Ranganathan, V. Muthu Kumar, R. Rajasekar, L. Devakumar and S.K. Pal

Abstract

The present review deals with parameters influencing the rice breakage during rice milling operations and the effect of rubber roll Sheller in rice husk removal process. The main objective of rice milling system is to remove the husk and bran layer to produce the white rice. In this process, rubber roll sheller is used to remove husk from the grains by friction process. If the rubber material is too soft, there may not be sufficient shear force to husk the paddy. Wear will be minimum for rubber material with high hardness but indeed it pronounce the breakage of rice. Hence, for efficient husking the rubber roll material should possess the balance of physico-mechanical properties. Rice breakage depends on several other parameters like the type of harvest, drying temperature, drying methods, physical characteristics of paddy, husking characteristics, paddy moisture content, rubber roller speed, rubber roll pressure, paddy feed rate and fissures. Rubber roll wear depends on the type of rubber material attached to the roller, feed rate, roller speed, pressure etc.

Open access

M. Tkadlečková, K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, P. Jonšta, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca and T. Merder

Abstract

The paper describes the research and development of casting and solidification of slab ingots from special tool steels by means of numerical modelling using the finite element method. The pre-processing, processing and post-processing phases of numerical modelling are outlined. Also, problems with determining the thermophysical properties of materials and heat transfer between the individual parts of the casting system are discussed. Based on the type of grade of tool steel, the risk of final porosity is predicted. The results allowed to improve the production technology of slab ingots, and also to verify the ratio, the chamfer and the external/ internal shape of the wall of the new designed slab ingots.

Open access

J. Górka, A. Czupryński and M. Adamiak

Abstract

The present paper is the result of the investigations of the properties and structure of nanocrystalline layers deposited from iron-based nanoalloy on steel S355N substrate by manual metal arc welding method (MMA). In the process of welding a 100 A current intensity was used with desiccation preheating at 80°C while maintaining the interpass temperature at range of 200°C. The resultant deposit welds were subjected to macro and microscopic metallographic examination, X-ray phase analyses and crystallite size was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), additionally EDX chemical composition analysis of precipitates during scanning electron microscopy was performed. Working properties of the obtained nanocrystalline deposit welds were evaluated based on hardness and metal-to-mineral abrasive wear. The results of the deposit welds working properties measurements were compared with the properties of wear resistant steel HARDOX 400 type used as the reference material.

Open access

M. Warmuzek

Abstract

In this paper the results of the microscopic observations of the intermetallic AlFeMnSi phases crystals formed in the liquid hypo- and eutectic AlSi alloys containing transition metals 3.0 wt.% Fe and 0.1, 0.5 and 2.0 wt.% Mn were presented. The crystals morphology has been revealed on both polished and deep etched microsections. The different stages of the primary AlFeMnSi phases particles formation in the solidifying alloy and their final morphology were shown as influenced by cooling rate and alloy chemical composition.

Open access

P. Lichý, T. Elbel, I. Kroupová and F. Radkovský

Abstract

Lately we encounter still more new applications of metallic foams, as well as possible methods of their manufacture. These metallic materials have specific properties, such as large rigidity at low density, in some cases high thermal conductivity, capability to absorb energy, etc. The work is focused on the preparation of these materials using conventional casting technology, which ensures rapid and economically feasible method for production of shaped components. In the experimental part we studied conditions of casting of metallic foams with a regular structure made of ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. For thus obtained castings we evaluated the achieved microstructure and mechanical properties, which determine the possible use of these materials. The samples were subjected to compression tests, by which we investigated deformation behaviour of selected materials and determined the value of energy absorption.

Open access

P. Maj, B. Adamczyk-Cieslak, M. Slesik, J. Mizera, T. Pieja, J. Sieniawski, T. Gancarczyk and S. Dudek

Abstract

Inconel 718 is a precipitation hardenable nickel-iron based superalloy. It has exceptionally high strength and ductility compared to other metallic materials. This is due to intense precipitation of the γ’ and γ” strengthening phases in the temperature range 650-850°C. The main purpose of the authors was to analyze the aging process in Inconel 718 obtained in accordance with AMS 5596, and its effect on the mechanical properties. Tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties, in the initial aging process and after reheating, as a function of temperature and time respectively in the ranges 650°-900°C and 5-480 min. In addition, to link the mechanical properties with the microstructure transmission microscopy observations were carried out in selected specimens. As a result, factors influencing the microstructure changes at various stages of strengthening were observed. The authors found that the γ’’ phase nucleates mostly homogenously in the temperature range 650-750°C, causing the greatest increase in strength. On the other hand, the γ’ and δ phases are formed heterogeneously at 850°C or after longer annealing in 800°C, which may weaken the material.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, M. Tkadlečková, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder and L. Pindor

Abstract

This paper deals with the issue of physical modelling of vortexes creation and tundish slag entrainment over the mouth of the nozzle into the individual casting strands. Proper physical model is equivalent to the operational continuous casting machine No. 2 in TŘINECKÉ ŽELEZÁRNY, a.s. Physical modelling methodology and simulated operational conditions are shortly described. Physical modelling was used for the evaluation of current conditions of steel casting at the application of different impact pads in the tundish. Further, laboratory measurement on the physical model aiming the determination of exact critical periods of vortexes creation and study of the slag entrainment as a consequence of changes in surface level during the tundish refilling to standard level were realised. The obtained results were analysed and discussed.

Open access

T. Maciąg, J. Wieczorek and B. Węcki

Abstract

Electropolishing is electrochemical method used in metal working that has a vital role in production of medical apparatus, in food or electric industry. The purpose of this paper is to determine optimal current parameters and time required for conducting electropolishing process from the perspective of changes of surface microgeometry. Furthermore, effect of different types of mechanical working used before electropolishing on final surface state was evaluated by observation in changes of topography. Research was conducted on electrolytic copper and brass. Analysis of surface geometry and its parameters (Ra, Sa) was used as criterion describing efficiency of chemical electropolishing. Results of the experiment allow for current parameter optimization of electrochemical polishing process for selected non-ferrous alloys with preliminary mechanical preparation of the surface.

Open access

S. Praveen Kumar, R. Parameshwaran, A. Ananthi and J. Jenil Jaba Sam

Abstract

An electrical contractor is one which plays significant role in day todays life in industries as well as in home appliances. In current scenario the materials for conducting purpose has an overwhelming research capability. Now a day the silver based electrical contact composite material have provided the potential applications in aerospace and automobile industries. Among silver based contact material the silver cadmium oxide and silver tin oxide plays a vital role in fabrication of electrical contactors. In this research an attempt has been made to study the influence of adding Aluminum with silver based electrical contact composite materials by two different processing routes namely stir-casting and powder metallurgy. Silver and aluminum matrix plays a virtual role in composite world owing to their highest conductivity. Optimum parameters were identified for attaining the maximum properties such as conductivity, hardness, density, and porosity of composition. By this better conducting property and mechanical property of the electrical contact can be improved by this system. Thus a screening test has be conducted with addition of Al with silver tin oxide compositions hence this paper aims to process the aluminum - silver based electrical contact materials by stir casting processing and powder metallurgy route and compare the results obtained.

Open access

M. Arivoli and R. Malathy

Abstract

Concrete plays a vital role in the design and construction of the infrastructure. To meet the global demand of concrete in future, it is becoming a challenging task to find suitable alternatives to natural aggregates. Steel slag is a by-product of steel making process. The steel slag aggregates are characterized by studying particle size and shape, physical and chemical properties, and mechanical properties as per IS: 2386-1963. The characterization study reveals the better performance of steel slag aggregate over natural coarse aggregate. M30 grade of concrete is designed and natural coarse aggregate is completely replaced by steel slag aggregate. Packing density of aggregates affects the characteristics of concrete. The present paper proposes a fuzzy system for concrete mix proportioning which increases the packing density. The proposed fuzzy system have four sub fuzzy system to arrive compressive strength, water cement ratio, ideal grading curve and free water content for concrete mix proportioning. The results show, the concrete mix proportion of the given fuzzy model agrees with IS method. The comparison of results shows that both proposed fuzzy system and IS method, there is a remarkable increase in compressive strength and bulk density, with increment in the percentage replacement of steel slag.