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Ana Raluca Chiosa and Bogdan Anastasiei

Abstract

Nowadays, with the major role that social media is playing in our life, people have found an easy way to utter negative word-of-mouth (NWOM). A self-administrated questionnaire with a visual stimulus was used to collect data from 108 Romanian Facebook users, between the ages of 18 and 26 years. This research aimed to determine the impact of adverse messages on brand attitude and a series of others consumer reactions.

The results indicate that negative messages may change brand perception and generate negative word-of-mouth, with significant impact on future purchase intentions. They also indicate that identity avoidance is a more relevant electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) antecedent than negative emotions, strongly and positively influencing brand hate. The findings show that negative events or actions can seriously affect consumer behavior, triggering brand rejection that eventually may translate into brand image deterioration and sales decline.

Open access

Stanimir Kabaivanov and Veneta Markovska

Abstract

This paper focuses on modelling environment changes in a way that allows to price weather derivatives in a flexible and efficient way. Applications and importance of climate and weather contracts extends beyond financial markets and hedging as they can be used as complementary tools for risk assessment. In addition, option-based approach toward resource management can offer very special insights on rare-events and allow to reuse derivative pricing methods to improve natural resources management. To demonstrate this general concept, we use Monte Carlo and stochastic modelling of temperatures to evaluate weather options. Research results are accompanied by R and Python code.

Open access

Anna Ząbkowicz

Abstract

Chile has been both a pioneer and the most radical follower of the idea of converting pension savings into contributions to privately-managed capital funds. Two recent portions of reforms under President Bachelet extended the social safety net as well as re-introduced publicly-administered programs on behalf of retirees.

Does such direction, in the country with the longest lasting evidence of privatized fully-funded pensions mean a fall of the arrangement? The article attempts a political-economic argumentation in aim to form the answer.

The premise is that risk sharing constitutes a crucial issue in insurance industry where old-age security is largely placed. In social security segment the risk of default on liabilities is backed by taxing capacity of the state; in fully-funded-pensions plans normally this is individual contributor who faces the portfolio risk. Therefore change in risk sharing between the contributors to the funds, pension management companies and the state is fundamental for evaluation of the reforms. The review of Chilean reforms reveals an institutional arrangement which is fundamental to risk sharing, namely the relation between contribution and benefit, left intact. This finding supports the conclusion that bringing recently the state back into retirement system can not be conceived as any systemic revolution.

Open access

Youssef Lamrani Alaoui and Mohamed Tkiouat

Abstract

Managing operational risk efficiently is a critical factor of microfinance institutions (MFIs) to get a financial and social return. The purpose of this paper is to identify, assess and prioritize the root causes of failure within the microfinance lending process (MLP) especially in Moroccan microfinance institutions. Considering the limitation of traditional failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) method in assessing and classifying risks, the methodology adopted in this study focuses on developing a fuzzy logic inference system (FLIS) based on (FMEA). This approach can take into account the subjectivity of risk indicators and the insufficiency of statistical data. The results show that the Moroccan MFIs need to focus more on customer relationship management and give more importance to their staff training, to clients screening as well as to their business analysis.

Open access

Yu Hsing

Abstract

Employing an extended IS-MP-AS model to study the effects of the exchange rate, fiscal policy and other related variables in Montenegro, the paper finds that real depreciation of the Euro, a lower government spending-to-GDP ratio, a lower real lending rate in the Euro area, a lower lagged real oil price, a higher lagged real GDP in Germany, and a lower expected inflation rate would promote economic growth.

Open access

Uğur Sivri

Abstract

Turkey has high inflation experience and in order to bring inflation rate down as well as maintaining macroeconomic stability many policy changes and reforms have been implemented. Despite some success, decreasing inflation rate is still an aim of monetary policy and price stability is still faraway. This article investigates time series properties of Turkish CPI inflation rate in both seasonally unadjusted and adjusted forms. Results of various unit root tests without structural breaks generally show that inflation rate is a nonstationary variable. This article also uses one and two breaks minimum LM unit root tests due to Lee and Strazicich (2004, 2003), respectively. In this case, test results show that inflation rate is a stationary variable with breaks. Although selected break points differ with respect to models and variables to some extent, it is observed that one break occurred around March 1994, and the second break occurred around April 2001.

Open access

Andrzej Cwynar, Wiktor Cwynar, Robert Pater and Piotr Kaźmierkiewicz

Abstract

To meet general objectives of the article, i.e. to check the extent to which the information needs of financial market institutions are satisfied, and to learn about whether there is a transition in this realm triggered by the advent of social media and big data, we surveyed a sample of 415 financial market professionals working in Poland. We also used logit regression models, through which we processed the survey results, to identify which factors are responsible for meeting the needs. We showed that although the information needs of financial market professionals are met to a large degree, still some potential for improvement remains in this regard. We found also that respondent-specific traits are insignificant in explaining the degree of satisfaction with data and information that is used by financial market professionals. Out of firm-specific characteristic and, the value of assets under the institution’s management turned out to be the key factors explaining the distribution of responses concerning satisfaction.

Open access

Jerzy Różański and Paweł Kopczyński

Abstract

The recent financial crisis that began in 2007, also known as the Global Financial Crisis, had a huge influence on the financial situations of enterprises and financial institutions around the world. The situation on world stock markets was also strongly affected by the crisis. As the behavior of investors may be affected by various factors which can impact their decisions on the stock exchanges, some of them may be unable to act in a rational manner and make the right decisions. The huge drop in share prices on world stock markets was visible in the early stages of the crisis. The share price does not always reflect the real situation of the company. The main purpose of this article is to evaluate the influence of the recent financial crisis on the financial situation and performance of Polish listed companies. Financial ratios will be utilized to evaluate the real changes in the financial situation of Polish listed companies during the crisis. A large group of companies will be covered by the survey in order to assess the impact of macroeconomic factors on the financial situations of enterprises in different phases of the crisis. Market tests will not be applied because they may be affected by changes in share prices which in turn are often affected by irrational decision-making and fear.

Open access

Elena Mielcova

Abstract

The main aim of this paper is to verify the hypothesis that the shift in levels of main macroeconomic variables – in this case in levels of GDP and exports – cause shift of employment levels in private sector, and this change is different for smaller enterprises than for “big players”. Calculated estimation will be presented on data from the sector of transportation and storage for four countries – the Czech Republic, Germany, Austria, Poland and Slovakia for the period 2005-2014, which cover the economic crisis in 2008. Countries were selected such that they cover both highly developed countries (Germany and Austria) and former Eastern Bloc countries (Czech Republic, Poland, and Slovakia) of the European Union placed in the close geographic area. Expected results would show different trends in employment levels for different types of enterprises in all countries.

Open access

Agata Gniadkowska-Szymańska

Abstract

Each type of investment has its own liquidity, i.e. the speed with which it can be converted into money. This can be seen with respect to various instruments (such as stocks or futures contracts), market segments, or even entire exchanges. The importance of liquidity has been acknowledged for a long time. A considerable number of studies have investigated stock liquidity, providing evidence that more illiquid stocks have higher returns, which may be deemed an ‚illiquidity premium’. In this paper I present various factors which have an effect on liquidity by presenting the results of research concerning relations between liquidity and stock return on the Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE) and Nasdaq stock exchanges in Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius.