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Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of recurrent urinary tract infections in individuals with functional or structural abnormalities. It also forms bladder and kidney stones. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a potential Proteus virulence factor that plays a key role in pathogenesis, as well as in stimulating innate immune response. Therefore, this study aimed to extract LPS from a highly resistant isolate and incorporate it in a delivery system (liposome) to stimulate an immune response against virulent pathogens. In the work, 50 isolates of P. mirabilis were taken from 200 urine specimens obtained from recurrent-urinary tract infections (UTI) of patients of AL-Sadar Hospital. Specimens were cultured on specific media, and then bacterial isolates were identified via morphological, biochemical and Vitek-2 systems. The results showed that P. mirabilis was expressed in 11 (22%), 30 (60%) and 9 (18%) recurrent UTI, kidney stone and catheter samples, respectively. All isolates were assessed through antibiogram testing, with the results revealing that most isolates were multidrug resistant to more than 3 classes of antibiotics. Herein, P. mirabilis NO 50 revealed particularly high resistance, so it was chosen for LPS extraction. Lethal dose 50 (LD50) observations indicated that a live suspension of P. mirabilis was at 4.5×107 CFU/ml, while LPS was at 270 μg/ml. LPS was used as an immunogenic to stimulate the immune system through injecting Rats intraperitoneally (I.P.) with 1 ml of LD50%. Subsequently, the efficiency of immunogenes in stimulating the immune response was evaluated by determining the Toll-like receptor and CD14 levels. The results indicate that LPS incorporated in the Liposome released moderate levels of Toll-like receptors-4 (TLR4) that enabled the immune system to clear pathogens. The LPS+ complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) and LPS vaccinated groups recorded hyper production for TLR4 (52.2 and 40.9 pg/ml, respectively), this was followed by liposome (LIP) and bacterial suspension (11 and 20.5 pg/ml, respectively) in ranking effectiveness. This study reveals a mean of CD14 that was higher in both LPS and LPS+CFA and moderate in LPS+LIP, in comparison with control and liposome groups.

In conclusion, LPS-Liposomes are a promising nanomedicine for modulating the hyper response of LPS. This may lead to tissue inflammation but appeared beneficial in stimulating the immune response at moderate levels so as to eradicate infection without tissue damage.


Healthcare-associated infections (HAI), especially those in hospitalized patients, can be regarded as an important public health problem worldwide. In this article we presented an overview on the use of antimicrobial textiles, including those with silver/nanosilver, as a new approach to countering HAI by reducing the potential risk of the pathogen transmission between patients and healthcare workers. The strong antimicrobial in vitro activity of these engineered textiles was confirmed in vitro against several HAI-associated pathogens, including multiresistant strains belonging to alert pathogens. However, according to literature data, the sole use of antimicrobial clothing by healthcare workers appears to not be sufficient for the prevention and control of HAI. Further comprehensive and controlled studies are needed to assess the real-time efficacy of the antimicrobial textiles in healthcare settings. Moreover, there is a need to control the silver use not only for medical applications, but also for non-medical purposes due to a possibility for the emergence and spread of silver resistance among microorganisms, especially Gram-negative bacteria.


Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in the regulation of the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, including that of the colon. The response of smooth muscles, blood vessels and colon mucosa (CM) to 5-HT is realized through the activation of various types of 5-HT receptors, in particular, 5-HT4 receptors, since the latter are identified on colon cells membranes (enterocytes, smooth muscles and endothelium). The aim of our study was to determine the effect of 5-НT4 receptors agonist (mosapride) on nitrogen (II) oxide production and lipid peroxidation in CM and colon muscle tissue (CMT) under the conditions of experimental ulcerative colitis (UC).


Introduction. Numerous clinical symptoms found in patients with temporomandibular disorders include non-carious lesions, such as V-shaped lesions, wear facets, enamel cracks, and impressions on the tongue or changes in the buccal mucosa. In addition, loosening and dislocation of teeth may occur.

Aim. The aim of the study was to obtain a clinical assessment of the prevalence and severity of non-carious lesions of dental hard tissues (attrition and abrasion) in patients treated for functional temporomandibular disorders.

Material and methods. The clinical research was performed among 45 patients of both genders, aged 16-38 years, treated at the Department of Functional Masticatory Disorders at the Medical University of Lublin, Poland. The study group consisted of 30 patients with diagnosed temporomandibular disorders. The control group included 15 individuals with no diagnosed temporomandibular disorders. The control group was selected using the method of analogues (considering age, gender and dental status). The examinations were performed before the treatment and twelve weeks after its beginning.

Results. The study found significantly higher values of the prevalence and severity of attrition in the patients group, in comparison with the control group (p < 0.05). In the case of abrasion, higher values of the studied variables of prevalence and severity of lesions in the patients, compared to controls, were also found, but the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusions. Attrition occurs more frequently and is more severe in patients with diagnosed temporomandibular disorders than in those without such diagnosis. However, no significant differences have been found in the prevalence and severity of abrasion in both groups.


The article describes the remediation of myocardium structure characteristics provided by Quercetinum under the influence of 0.01 LD50 mercury chloride (II) in rats at chronic exposure. Ultrastructural and metabolic reorganization of myocardium tissue was studied by electron microscopic and histochemical techniques. Quercetinum reduces energy imbalance in the myocardium, shows membrane-stabilizing activity, and promotes stabilization and normalization of the function of membranes by direct biochemical interaction of the membrane organelles of the body’s cells.


Introduction: Osteoporosis is a chronic metabolic disease with multifactorial etiology. One of possible osteoporosis causes may be impairment of osteoclasts function which leads to increased bone resorption. This may be a result of many metabolic changes. It is believed that changes of folate-methionine metabolism in osteoporosis play an essential role in the etiology of this disease.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine how polymorphisms of SLC19A1 and FOLR3 genes may play the key role in folate-methionine pathway and influence on the etiology of osteoporosis.

Results: The statistically overrepresentation of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) was observed in the control group compared to the osteopenia (34.9% in osteopenia vs. 37.8% in controls, p=0.025, OR=0.61). As to the SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism we have noted the statistically significant over-representation of wild-type GG genotype (35.8% vs. 26.2%, p=0.046, OR=1.57) and overrepresentation of wild-type G allele (56.9% vs. 50.2%, p=0.061, OR=1.31) in osteopenia group if compared to the controls.

Conclusions: In our study we shown the protective role of mutated GG genotype of FOLR3 (rs11235449) polymorphism to osteopenia progress and possible role of wild-type GG genotype and wild-type G allele of SLC19A1 (rs3788200) polymorphism in osteopenia development.


The article describes the results of histological and morphometric studies of liver in Balb/c mice with hemorrhagic stroke. The hemorrhagic stroke was modeled in the animals by administering autoblood in volume of 0.1 ml in the right hemisphere, and within 5, 10 and 30 days an analysis of structural changes in the liver was performed. Progressive changes were established in terms of 5-10 days of the experiment. This consisted of changes in the sinusoidal capillaries and notable changes in the central veins of the liver lobuli. Herein, acute dilatation and erythrocytal stasis were most pronounced around the lumen of the central veins, while hepatocytes with signs of necrosis (severe cytoplasmic swelling, vacuolar dystrophic changes) were detected in the sinusoid capillaries. The results of the morphometry indicated an increase in the area of the nucleus and the cells caused by intracellular swelling, domination of euchromatin and decrease of total density of chromatin in nuclei. Partial regression of the diameter of sinusoidal capillaries and the area of hepatocytes were detected on the 30th day of the experiment. The changes in the sinusoidal capillaries of the liver lobules are assessed as secondary to stroke, as well as to changes in organ microcirculation, and are associated with dystrophic changes in the hepatocytes.


Pharmaceutical analysis guarantees patient safety all over the world. Thus, continuous development of existing analytical techniques is still very important. Pressurized capillary electrochromatography and pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography are hybrid separation techniques that combine the selectivity of liquid chromatography and the high separation efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. They use a smaller amount of reagents and samples, hence, reducing the total cost of analysis. Therefore they have found application in a number of pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis. This review article focuses on the use and importance of pressurized and pressure-assisted capillary electrochromatography in pharmaceutical and biomedical analysis, taking into account types of detectors and capillaries used. Despite the fact that pressurized capillary electrochromatography and pressure assisted capillary electrochromatography offer many possibilities and have been available for over a dozen years, they are still underdevelopment and not fully explored.


Non-Hodgkin lymphomas are malignant neoplasms whose incidence rates increase each year. These also include neoplasms rare in the general population. The present case report described a patient with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (LPL) and rapid liver damage. In most cases, infiltration of the liver is rare in advanced stages of hematopoietic malignancies when hepatomegaly, cholestatic jaundice and organ failure are observed. The patient’s history includes non-specific abdominal pain that was accompanied by general symptoms such as nocturnal hyperhidrosis, subfibrile temperature and fever, as well as weight loss. The above complaints aggravate with an increase in organ size. The laboratory findings initially demonstrated moderately elevated concentrations of transaminases. In our case, the baseline biochemical indices of liver function were found to be normal. During the next days of hospitalisation, the features of liver damage intensified and were accompanied by liver failure. The gold diagnostic standard is a biopsy of the bone marrow and the organ affected. Since the patient’s condition deteriorated and liver failure developed, the diagnosis was established based on trephine biopsy of the bone marrow. Chemotherapy was implemented; despite the treatment applied, the patient’s clinical condition did not improve. Two months after the onset of first symptoms the patient died.


A rare case of asymptomatic traumatic neuroma, triggered by the performed amputation within the right thigh due to the osteosarcoma is reported. The MRI examination has shown a focal lesion at the end of the sciatic nerve, with isointense signal and weak contrast enhancement on T1-, high signal on T2-weighted images, without restriction diffusion on DWI. The morphology did not significantly change after 12 months, which confirms the primary diagnosis. The main limitation of the case is the lack of histological confirmation, since the lesion was not removed.