The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of adding thermally treated clay on some engineering properties of the untreated expansive clayey soil. Three expansive clayey soil samples obtained from three different sites in the south of Syria have been investigated. They were thermally treated up to three different levels (450°C, 650°C and 850°C) for 3 hours. Three replacement levels of thermally treated clay were used, i.e. 0%, 10% and 20%. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) technique has been used to detect the crystalline and glassy phase in the clayey samples before and after the thermal treatment. Pozzolanic activity of the thermally treated clayey soil has been studied using the modified Chapelle test and the mechanical strength test at each of the temperature levels. Atterberg limits, compaction, free swell, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage have particularly been investigated. Test results revealed the positive effect of thermally treated clay when added to the natural soil. Plasticity index (PI) was reduced by about 60% when 20% thermally treated clay was added to the natural soil. In addition, 6% lime was added to further investigate the combined effect of lime and calcined clay on the properties of the clayey expansive soil. All investigated properties were significantly improved when 20% thermally treated soil and 6% lime were added together. For instance, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage values were reduced to less than 15% or even much less when compared with those of the natural soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were employed as well.
Back in the early 1980s, coal deposits occurring at depths of ~700 m below surface were already regarded as large-depth deposits. Meanwhile, today the borderline depth of large-depth mining has extended to >1,000 m. Design, excavation and maintenance of mining roadways at the depth of >1,000 m have, therefore, become crucial issues in a practical perspective in recent years. Hence, it is now extremely important to intensify research studies on the influence of large depths on the behaviour of rock mass and deformation of support in underground excavations. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in five mining excavations at depths ranging from 950 to 1,290 m, where monitoring stations with measurement equipment were built. The analysis of data from laboratory and coal mine tests, as well as in situ monitoring, helped to formulate a set of criteria for stability assessment of underground excavations situated at large depths. The proposed methodology of load and deformation prediction in support systems of the excavations unaffected by exploitation is based on the criteria referring to the depth of excavation and the quality of rock mass. The depth parameter is determined by checking whether the analysed excavation lies below the critical depth, whereas the rock mass quality is determined on the basis of the roof lithology index (WL) and the crack intensity factor (n)
The most important piece of road infrastructure is bridges. Wooden bridges have advanced constantly during the past decades. The trend began in Scandinavian countries but has also now gained significant ground in Russia. This research studies experimental endurance potential of the joints of the wooden beam while considering the coefficient of asymmetry of the cycle, which corresponds to the actual operating conditions. Performance analysis of the composite bars is carried out based on the experiment; the development of a special methodology for calculating the joints of wooden elements with the dowel plates for their better endurance is also introduced in this paper. The results of experimental studies on the performance of bending composite wooden bridge bars based on dowel plates operating under cyclic influences thus determine the endurance limit of wood for composite wooden bridge beams based on dowel plates. The calculation technique and interdependence of the endurance coefficient affecting the asymmetry coefficient of the bent composite wooden bridge bars on the dowel plates under cyclic loading are considered. The experimental data on the endurance of composite wooden bridge beams have been obtained, and separate analysis has been made of the compounds under cyclic loading performance; a method has been developed for calculating the bent composite wooden bridge bars reinforced by the dowel plates under cyclic influences.
A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.
This paper analyses the effects of loads that change their location, i.e. moving but quasi-static loads. Displacements defining the deformation of the soil–steel structure’s shell buried in soil are calculated from the results of measurements performed using a dense grid of points located on the circumferential section of the corrugated plate. In this way, all the components of the structure, namely the corrugated plate, the backfill and the pavement with its foundation, as well as the natural (real) principles of their interaction, are taken into account in the solution. In the proposed algorithm, unit strains are converted into displacements, whereby results as accurate as the ones obtained by direct experimental measurements are obtained. The algorithm’s main advantages are that the number of points is limitless, they are regularly distributed on the circumferential section of the shell and any displacement directions can be obtained. Consequently, the deformations of the shell can be faithfully reproduced. The algorithm’s convenient feature is that one can use a simplified computational diagram of the shell in the form of a beam having the shape of the shell in 2D space (without the other components of the soil–steel structure). The advantage of this measuring method (electric resistance tensometry) is that there is no need to build the solid scaffold used for displacement measurements. The research focuses on the analysis of the displacements and the unit strains arising during the primary and secondary (return) travel of the load.
Ground improvement with granular piles increases the load-carrying capacity, reduces the settlement of foundations built on the reinforced ground and is also a good alternative to concrete pile. Granular piles or stone columns are composed of granular material, such as crushed stone or coarse dense sand. An analytical approach based on the continuum approach is presented for the non-linear behaviour of the granular pile. The formulation for pile element displacement is done considering the non-homogeneity of the granular pile as it reflects the true behaviour and also accounts for the changes in the state of the granular pile due to installation, stiffening and improvement effects. The present study shows that the settlement influence factor for an end-bearing granular pile decreases with increase in the relative stiffness of the bearing stratum. The settlement influence factor decreases with increase in linear and non-linear non-homogeneity parameters for all values of relative length. For a shorter pile, the rate of decrease of the settlement influence factor is greater in comparison to that for a longer pile. Shear stress at the soil–granular pile interface reduces in the upper compressible portion of the granular pile and increases in the lower stiffer portion of the granular pile due to the non-homogeneity of an end-bearing granular pile.
The instability of saturated granular soils in field conditions generates drastic collapse in terms of runoff deformation because of its failing to sustain naturally applied loading conditions such as earthquakes, wave actions and vibrations. The objective of this laboratory investigation is to study the effects of the depositional methods, overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and confining pressure on the undrained instability shear strength of medium dense (Dr = 52%) sand–silt mixtures under static loading conditions. For this purpose, a series of undrained monotonic triaxial tests were carried out on reconstituted saturated silty sand samples with fines content ranging from 0% to 40%. Three confining pressures were used (P’c = 100, 200 and 300 kPa) in this research. The sand–silt mixture samples were prepared using two depositional methods, dry funnel pluviation (DFP) and wet deposition (WD), and subjected to two OCRs (1 and 2). The obtained instability lines and friction angles indicate that the funnel pluviated samples exhibit strain hardening compared to the wet deposited samples and that normally consolidated and overconsolidated wet deposited clean sandy samples were very sensitive to static liquefaction. The test results also indicate that the instability friction angle increases with the increase in the OCR expressing soil dilative character tendency increase. The instability friction angle decreases with the increase in the fines content for DFP and the inverse tendency was observed in the case of WD.
Nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy is commonly accepted in the community of geotechnical engineers using advanced finite element software for solving complex soil–structure interaction problems. However, further design procedure of the structural elements is carried out using increased values of the computed elastic stress resultants. It is absolutely not clear whether this method is conservative and, therefore, whether safe or not. To tackle this problem, a fully consistent nonlinear analysis of a deep excavation protected by the diaphragm wall is analysed here. The subsoil is modelled using the Hardening Soil model, while reinforced concrete is modelled using the modified Lee–Fenves model enhanced by the Eurocode 2 (EC2)-compatible creep module, developed by the author. It is shown that the commonly used nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy may yield insufficient amount of reinforcement from the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) points of view. A consistent and conservative method of combining fully nonlinear analysis and the rules imposed by the EC2 is proposed.
Knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of ballast is very important for designing a railway track, especially for high-speed lines. The monotonic drained triaxial tests of scaled and fouled ballast presented in literature were analysed using the Frictional State Theory. The stress–plastic dilatancy relationship shows that four characteristic stages of shearing may be specified. The influence of stress level and water content may be quantified by the use of the Frictional State Theory.