Providing appropriate and equal healthcare to the various classes of society is among the major issues in social welfare. The spatial distribution and locating of health service centres are significant in addressing the healthcare needs of citizens. This issue needs to be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches throughout those cities with high populations and activity density levels. By taking Isfahan metropolitan area as the case study area, in this study, a combination of Network Analyst tool within Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was used to evaluate the catchment areas of the 26 existing hospitals within the study area. Thus, with effective data collection in the form of layers of information such as transportation network, population density, land use, etc. using (GIS), the authors categorised urban land in seven categories from poor to very good for the construction of hospitals. The result of analysis indicated that existing hospitals covered approximately 24% of active urban areas within a standard access time. The result can be used for policy making and healthcare planning.
The return of democratic rule in 1999 after many years of military intervention has left some electoral geographic imprints on Nigeria: voting pattern has varied over this period. This paper analyses the pattern of voter choice homogeneity (VCH) and tests the effect of religion on VCH in the presidential elections of the fourth Nigerian republic from 1999 to 2015. The study found that some economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on VCH from the 2003 election but were all insignificant and with a negative impact in the 2015 election. The influence of religion on VCH was negative in the 1999 election but remained positive in subsequent elections and had an increasingly upward trajectory signifying the snowballing importance of faith in citizens’ political choices at the presidential polls. The analysis shows that the pattern of VCH in 1999 was random, but clustered from 2003 to 2015, although the 2011 geographical clustering of VCH was dissected and the 2015 pattern was regionalised. Thus, the article argues that voting patterns structured Nigeria’s political landscape from a random to clustered but dissected electoral landscapes to a clustered but regionalised mi-lieu of a nation of two voting worlds. The pattern of a nation of two voting blocs was witnessed in the 2015 election, in which the VCH sharply depicts the religious cleavage of the country and to some degree also depicts ethnic fault-lines.
Local service centres play a vital role in shaping the quality of life in urban neighbourhoods. They offer access to essential everyday services (shops, education, healthcare, personal services) and to public spaces. If they are properly planned and managed, they can bring particular added values to a local community, such as social integration and territorial identification. The history of urban planning has produced several patterns of local service centres (ancient agora, mediaeval market square, neighbourhood unit, modern agora) but today a question arises: how can a local service centre be successfully planned and organised in post-modern political practice? How can its potential be realised and the ever-changing needs, expectations and preferences of local communities be met? Who should be involved in those processes? To answer those questions in this paper we refer to citizen participation and public communication concepts, where selecting the appropriate stakeholders emerges as a necessary starting point for effective urban governance. We present the results of in-depth interviews with local actors (local authorities, municipality officials, town planners, non-governmental organisations, local leaders) in Poland (Wrocław, Siechnice, Ostrów Wielkopolski, Warszawa and Zabierzów), Czech Republic (Prague) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Depending on the specific local context, various stakeholders are perceived as essential to the decision-making process. The power relations and problems encountered in implementing public policy in particular locations have been summarised in three sections: relationships between stakeholders, leadership, and good practices. The paper concludes with a list of typical actors who should be involved in planning, building and managing a local service centre in an urbanised neigh-bourhood.
This study examines the perceptions of urban residents towards the socio-economic and environmental consequences of tourism development in Zimbabwe. Perceptions were tested using empirical data that were gathered from a sample of 384 adult members, representing urban households in Bulawayo. The results from a semi-structured survey revealed that such sociodemographic variables as gender, education, length of stay and income are relatively predictable of their attitude towards tourism. Further, although the urban residents tended to perceive tourism impacts positively, they reacted more strongly to the environmental impacts involved than to the economic and sociocultural impacts. The urban geographic context of this study makes this finding significant, as it indicates that urban residents have an environmental consciousness with regard to tourism. The study has implications for tourism development planners and destination managers, in terms of enhanced engagement with the urban residents regarding tourism development, irrespective of the likelihood of residents supporting future development.
In recent years several new forms of lodging have developed as alternatives to the hotel. For business travellers the serviced apartment has emerged as a new phenomenon. Within extant accommodation scholarship the service apartment sector has attracted minimal international attention either from tourism or property researchers. This paper analyses the development and character of service apartments in one of South Africa’s major business tourism destinations, the city of Cape Town. It is disclosed that serviced apartments are clustered around different business nodes in the city and spatially differentiated in terms of serving distinctive business traveller markets.
The increased growth and commercialization of adventure tourism led to a number of changes in the profile of the individuals who now engage in adventure activities. As a result, previous understandings of adventure tourism motivations may no longer be valid. This study seeks to investigate the influence of these changes by analyzing the motivations of tourists who have engaged in adventure tourism across a range of commercial adventure activities. This is done through data collected from participants in adventure tourism, throughout South Africa, using a push and pull factor approach to motivations. The results show the increasing influence of the experiences with nature in motivations, particularly in the context of pull factors. The role of risk and thrill in motivations, which has been emphasized in previous literature, is found to be relatively minimal among these respondents. Furthermore, adventure tourism experiences are found to be dynamic, with an increasing number of significant factors influencing decision-making. It also demonstrates notable differences in the motivations of participants, based on the type of activity in which they engage.
Rapid urban growth can exert negative effects on the natural environment due to the loss of naturally vegetated areas, loss of biological diversity, deforestation and soil erosion. The condition of cities is inherently linked with the natural environment which has a positive influence on health, social relations, human welfare and economic activity. Urban areas should abound in green spaces, and should also be easily accessible to the general public. The aim of this study was to determine the spatial distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces on the example of the city of Tczew in northern Poland. The proposed methodology can be applied in cities of a similar size and urban structure to promote rational management of urban green space in line with the principles of sustainable development and spatial order. The Green-Space Record, a useful tool for inventorying urban green spaces, was developed to pursue the main research goal. The information accumulated in the Record constitutes valuable input data for further analysis, including the determination of the area, distribution, influence and quality of urban green spaces. The results of the analysis revealed that urban green spaces occupy more than 19% of Tczew’s territory, which is equivalent to 70.6 m2 per resident. Managed green spaces span the area of only 66.75 ha (11.31 m2 per resident) and are unevenly distributed in the city. More than half of these areas are found in the Stare Miasto (Old Town) district, whereas two residential districts (Gdańska, Prątnica) are completely devoid of public greens. The quality of urban green spaces is generally satisfactory in Tczew; however, not all residents have equal access to high-quality public greens.
Poverty eradication is an urgent task set by the world community in the Millennium Development Goals. Studying the success of Brazil, China and Russia as regional leaders in reducing poverty is of great scientific and practical interest for economic geographers in terms of typological peculiarities as well as the approaches and tools used. The article highlights the main features of modern countries’ social and economic development which contributed to poverty reduction or inhibited the process in the past several decades. It reveals the similarities and differences in the approaches to poverty measurement in three BRICS countries (Brazil, China and Russia) that showed the biggest progress towards poverty eradication and presents a comparative analysis of poverty research and measurement methods used at the national level.