Gentrification is no-longer, if it ever was, a small scale process of urban transformation. Gentrification globally is more often practised as large scale urban redevelopment. It is state-led or state-induced. The results are clear – the displacement and disenfranchisement of low income groups in favour of wealthier in-movers. So, why has gentrification come to dominate policy making worldwide and what can be done about it?
The suburbanisation of poverty has been noted in the cities of a large number of countries, including the UK. The main drivers are labour market restructuring on the one hand, and market-driven change in the housing system on the other although social and housing policies are also factors. This paper explores the possible consequences for the welfare of low-income groups in relation to two dimensions: exposure to air pollution and access to good quality schools. Results show that, for these groups, suburbanisation has had mixed impacts on welfare. In most cities, suburbanisation is likely to bring improvements in air quality but there are only a minority where it improves access to good quality schools. Overall, it is clear that suburbanising low income households enjoy fewer of the benefits of suburban locations than middle class households.
Modern society is fascinated by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), physical laziness, isolation from nature, and a preference for staying indoors. Despite the general acceptance and understanding of the health benefits of recreation in the open air, a change is being seen in the recreational patterns of urban dwellers, as they spend less time outdoors. In order to counteract such behaviours, we can try to apply ICTs to enhance time spent outdoors. The performed study aimed to find uses of ICT solutions in designing public spaces in order to enhance and promote a healthy lifestyle. The selected examples show possible applications of ICT in promoting active recreation, e.g. mobile applications for sport activities, urban games in line with the idea of the Playable City, and urban furniture and outdoor hotspots enabling access to the Internet. The research findings proved that digitisation is not only a threat to a healthy lifestyle, but that it can also create opportunities to improve the quality of life.
This paper evaluates the built area within “cadastral zones” (subdivisions of municipalities) in order to identify the expansion tendencies of settlements, with the aim of contributing to preventing future uncontrolled developments. Demographic growth always needs more construction so it is important to provide a spatial analysis of land use. The paper is focused on the expansion dynamics of built areas within cadastral zones due to rapid social and economic changes. The lack of researches for the Drenica region has affected land use, which has been unplanned and not-to-standard, and has not preserved agricultural land. In the last two decades – since 1999 – there has been considerable growth in the construction sector across all of Kosovo. Although, according to the spatial plan, property owners have the right to develop and use their own property in their own best interests, these regulations do not give them the right to work outside the legal framework of the local plan itself. Land use should be in full compliance with spatial plans, both national and local. This study will contribute to the sustainable urbanisation of settlements and preservation of agricultural land. The results of the study will also help to make important decisions for built areas, in also providing necessary recommendations for steps to be taken to have a land use based on common interests.
Theory suggests that cultural and creative industries (CCIs) cluster in cities where levels of socio-economic development are higher and where they can take advantage of the city’s hard and soft infrastructure. However, some South African rural areas and small towns have identified CCIs as potential economic drivers. This paper investigates the relationship between the presence of CCIs in non-metropolitan spaces and levels of socio-economic development using a municipal level socio-economic status index and GIS mapping. The results show a positive relationship between larger numbers of CCIs and higher levels of development. It is suggested that a threshold level of development must be met before CCIs will cluster in an area and become a viable option for promoting local economic development.
Access to water is vital for sustainable human socio-economic development. The study examined factors affecting households’ access to water supply in three residential areas in parts of Lagos metropolis, Nigeria. A random sampling technique was employed to administer questionnaires to 200 households. The study area was delineated into residential types using the grid method. The result shows the dominance of improved water sources in the high/medium-income residential areas. Households in the medium-income area recorded the highest access in terms of distance to, and safety of water supply. The factor analysis explains 77.41% of the variance with three components, namely: water access, demographic and economic attributes. The results of the analysis of variance reveal three significant variables, namely: main water source, income and cost, which is significant at p<0.01. The regression equation model obtained is given as Y = 2.059 + 0.307MWS + 0.286INM + 0.164CST. The study concluded that main water source, income and cost are the factors affecting access to water supply in the study area. The study recommends investment in water infrastructure, giving a higher priority to low-income residential areas for improved healthy living and sustainable socio-economic development.
The goal of the paper is to evaluate and analyse changes in selective municipal collection, recycling level, and recovery, of waste. The article indicates the Polish legislation currently in force to systematise the organisation of waste management systems. It presents the participation of selective waste collection in the total municipal waste at the voivodeship scale, as well as changes in the number of individually segregated fractions (i.e. categories of waste segregation) of selectively collected waste in Poland. Moreover, the levels of waste recycling and recovery were analysed for the country’s ten largest cities, while also showing that the cities implement accepted goals of municipal waste recovery. On the example of Warsaw, the structure of collected waste was discussed and attention was paid to the problem of quality of collected waste, which results in it being sent to sorting facilities.
The article presents and analyses data on the educational potential of schools in relation to settlement type in Poland. On the example of two types of schools – successful and requiring help – their distribution was shown in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Voivodeship. For this purpose, data from the Educational Value Added (EVA) index for voivodeship schools were interpreted. On this basis, it was determined what type of school the branches represent, and then classification and analysis was made for the village/city and the number of inhabitants. The results show that the educational potential of rural schools is lower than that of schools in cities. The results were interpreted on the basis of theories of cultural reproduction, bearing in mind the importance of settlement type for the construction of cultural capital.
Providing appropriate and equal healthcare to the various classes of society is among the major issues in social welfare. The spatial distribution and locating of health service centres are significant in addressing the healthcare needs of citizens. This issue needs to be evaluated using quantitative and qualitative approaches throughout those cities with high populations and activity density levels. By taking Isfahan metropolitan area as the case study area, in this study, a combination of Network Analyst tool within Geographic Information System (GIS) and an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was used to evaluate the catchment areas of the 26 existing hospitals within the study area. Thus, with effective data collection in the form of layers of information such as transportation network, population density, land use, etc. using (GIS), the authors categorised urban land in seven categories from poor to very good for the construction of hospitals. The result of analysis indicated that existing hospitals covered approximately 24% of active urban areas within a standard access time. The result can be used for policy making and healthcare planning.
The return of democratic rule in 1999 after many years of military intervention has left some electoral geographic imprints on Nigeria: voting pattern has varied over this period. This paper analyses the pattern of voter choice homogeneity (VCH) and tests the effect of religion on VCH in the presidential elections of the fourth Nigerian republic from 1999 to 2015. The study found that some economic indicators have a positive and significant effect on VCH from the 2003 election but were all insignificant and with a negative impact in the 2015 election. The influence of religion on VCH was negative in the 1999 election but remained positive in subsequent elections and had an increasingly upward trajectory signifying the snowballing importance of faith in citizens’ political choices at the presidential polls. The analysis shows that the pattern of VCH in 1999 was random, but clustered from 2003 to 2015, although the 2011 geographical clustering of VCH was dissected and the 2015 pattern was regionalised. Thus, the article argues that voting patterns structured Nigeria’s political landscape from a random to clustered but dissected electoral landscapes to a clustered but regionalised mi-lieu of a nation of two voting worlds. The pattern of a nation of two voting blocs was witnessed in the 2015 election, in which the VCH sharply depicts the religious cleavage of the country and to some degree also depicts ethnic fault-lines.