Text comprehension is understood as a social and cultural phenomenon in which it is possible to identify the developmental phases, that is ontogenesis, from the aspect of communicating entity. The age-receptive value, as well as the age-receptive variability of text, is reflected in the texts for children. Works of folk or authorial provenance anticipate the mental dispositions of a child subject. Developing the understanding by children is resulting from formal and content criteria. Understanding – like speech – grows. The supreme level of text comprehension is the improvisation of larger narrative formations: Compared with the primary contact with the text in the form of rhymes, the form is released and the epic breadth of expression increases. The child as authorial subject produces a text that is characterized by such variability of expression values which is contained in the child´s current mental model reached through conventions and receptive experience. The study will demonstrate the expressive value of text using examples of creative writing of children. Methodologically, it relies on the semantic communication model of text and the expressive value of text.
This is an interview of Manohar Mouli Biswas, Bangla Dalit activist and writer, where he expresses his views about the identity of Dalit people and the historiography of caste in India. He further speaks about the uniqueness of Bangla Dalit literature, its similarities with Dalit writings in other Indian regional languages and the position of Dalit women writers. He is candid enough to speak about certain autobiographical elements that provided him with the impetus to be a Dalit writer. He further speaks about Dalit drama and its performances which is a marker of its acceptance amongst the viewers. He emphasises on the role of translation of Dalit literature to generate awareness among the larger reading public towards Dalit literature.
This article analyzes three narrative lines as depicted in Richard Powers’ Three Farmers on Their Way to a Dance (1985) and the way his depiction of real, photographed, present and past characters along with a narrative reference to a photograph create a metafictional and intertextual frameworks through the use of which Powers symbolically points out a sensibility of the late 20th century and its difference from early 20th century related to the vision of the world, understanding of reality, art, and history. In addition, the article emphasizes Powers’ use of postmodern allegory and the way it creates another meaning which points out a commercial and consumerist character of the 20th century and which also symbolically represents a history of technical and artistic depiction of the world.
The short story “Albert” is usually interpreted as a manifestation of Leo Tolstoy’s aesthetics. Thus, the narrative of the story is generally beyond the research scope. Tolstoy had been influenced by Turgenev when writing the story. Their relations were analysed through the sociocultural concept of the literary field. Tolstoy rejected the “patron - newcomer” type of relations. The conflict was explicitly depicted in the story narrative. This observation was confirmed by a comparison of three editions of the story. Albert represented Leo Tolstoy himself when he (the story protagonist) rejected Delesov’s patron intentions.
Over the last centuries women have fought for their rights. On the pages of literature appeared hundreds of heroines who wanted to change the world. Poniatowska and Orzeszkowa - two women from distant cultures and times - created outstanding literary characters. The novel of Elena Poniatowska, published in 1969, was the chronicle of 20th century in Mexico, which included documentary material about Jesusa Palancares and her story about the revolution in 1910. The work is the epic of the folk hero closed in the labyrinth of solitude and attempt to determine his own character. Jesusa will be compared with Marta, the main character of Eliza Orzeszkowa’s novel, which was published in 1873 and is dedicated to the social rights of women. This contribution aims to discuss the literary techniques and topics in works of the important women-writers in Poland and Mexico. This paper analyses the novels not through feminism, but through the study of culture and politics. In the comparative analysis of Marta and Hasta no verte Jesús mío the paper shows similarities and diversities in the texts, considering differences in national identity and similar social-political situation as a bridge between the cultures.
This paper, from the perspective of language learning as a meaning-making process, presents a critical review of the existing research on how pre-use, in-use, and post-use evaluation has investigated the relationship between English language teaching textbooks’ content and learners’ academic literacy development. The paper shows that previous research on these three types of evaluation examined English language teaching textbooks’ effect on English learners’ academic literacy development in an unprincipled and macro way. The research gap identified in these previous studies calls for an improved textbook evaluation framework that integrates a principled learning theory while simultaneously emphasizing macro-constructs (e.g., context) and micro-linguistic features needed for academic literacy development. To this end, this paper proposes a framework informed by Systemic Functional Linguistics-related constructs (e.g., genre, register, meta-meanings, and lexico-grammar system) to optimize the evaluation of English language teaching textbook content.
The study of foreign languages is obligatory for all pupils in Slovakia, where the first foreign language is English. Conforming to integration legislation, pupils with special educational needs (SEN) are taught in mainstream classes. Foreign language teachers, however, lack training and where not prepared how to apply teaching methods and techniques for pupils with SEN in the regular language learning class. In the study presented, 187 elementary school teachers filled out questionnaires dealing with integration of pupils with SEN and possible inclusion of learners with disabilities in Slovakia and a group of 56 university FLT students - teachers-to-be. Teachers are not forced and/or encouraged to take part in in-service courses or other education on how to teach these pupils. The pre-service teachers are offered courses on SEN teaching, however, these are not compulsory and mostly general education oriented. The majority of in-service and pre-service teachers felt that pupils with SEN should be taught in regular education class. The article also describes the current situation concerning integration of students with SEN using the official statistical data.
The intergenerational learning within various types of social environment and in relation to different target groups has long covered a wide range of uses. The professional literature mostly describes its benefits for children and young people, however, the intergenerational education also contributes to the development of personality and the saturation of the educational and psycho-social needs of both adults and seniors. The paper represents the authors’ output of the VEGA research project No. 1/0176/15 and it is structured into three chapters. In the first chapter, the author deals with the opportunities of the foreign language education for (not only) disabled seniors. The second chapter focuses on the intergenerational programmes that can be used in the language education of (not only) disabled seniors who are clients of social residential facilities. In the third chapter, the author elaborates the psychological aspects of the foreign language education of seniors.
There is no doubt these days that knowledge of different forms of motivation and its implementation in the work environment is a prerequisite for improving the quality of work results and subsequent achievement of organizational goals. Every head teacher meets this phenomenon. A lack of motivation is behind a number of unfulfilled tasks, unwillingness to look for efficient work practices, absence, disloyalty to their own society, refusing overtime, not accepting necessary changes, ignoring requests for assistance, and more. It is not easy to find a way to solve these problems. However, theory and practice go hand in hand and together it creates the perfect symbiosis which looks at the ailments mentioned and gradually finds answers. Where to start in order to be successful in this quest? We should first recognize the meaning and importance of motivation in the work process. The role of the head teacher is to know teachers to have a positive impact on their behaviour and entrust them with such tasks corresponding to their knowledge and skills. Work motivation is focused on carrying out a work obligation and should lead to the required working behaviour. Motivation to work is also connected to the work environment and climate in which teachers work. In general, we can say that teachers’ satisfaction at work determines their personal relationships outside the workplace as well.
For this reason, we decided to handle the theme on the specifics of the process of motivation occurring in the relationship between head teachers and foreign language teachers. The aim of this paper is to analyze the issues of the specifics of the process of motivation in the relationship between head teachers and foreign language teachers.
This paper shows that the experimental group who are exposed to DVD Video Lesson that uses code switching language has an average mean score in the pretest of 1.56, and this increased to an average mean of 3.50 in the posttest. The control group that uses DVD Video Lesson that uses purely English language got an average mean of 1.06 in the pretest and increased to 1.53 in the posttest. Based on the results of the performance posttest taken by the two groups, the experimental group has a dramatic increase in scores from the pretest to posttest. Although both groups had increased in their performance scores from pretest to posttest, the experimental group (code switching language) performs well in the posttest than the control group. As revealed in this findings , there is a significant difference in the posttest scores between the experimental group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction and the control group who are exposed to DVD lesson that uses English. The students who are exposed to the Video Lesson that uses code switching perform well than those students who are exposed in DVD video lesson that uses purely English language. DVD Video lesson that uses code switching as a medium of instruction in teaching social dance is the useful approach in teaching Grade 10 Special Program in the Art students. The language used (code switching) is the powerful medium of instruction that enhances the learning outcomes of the students to perform well. This paper could be an eye opener to the Department of Education to inculcate the used of first language/local language or MTB-MLE, not only in Grade I to III but all level in K to 12 programs, since education is a key factor for building a better nation.