The valuation of non–marketed goods and services of beaches in developing nations is rarely conducted; thus, lax management efforts at these resource–rich places often lead to degradation. In an attempt to resolve this issue the research used the travel cost valuation method and incorporated the use of geographic information system to estimate a never-before-done non-market valuation of the area visited by respondents at the beach of Patenga of Chittagong, Bangladesh. The uniqueness of the research stems from defining the area enjoyed by the survey respondents, via mapping, which helped assign the value generated to that particular part of Patenga and not the rest; this significantly decreased the underestimation problem of the travel cost methodology. The research used secondary sources and collected responses and geographical data from surveys conducted over a seven day period in March of 2018, from 277 respondents. A value of at least 14,331,044BDT/USD1.71million was estimated for 2018 for only 9% of Patenga. Furthermore, the Willingness to Pay approach was used to propose an entry fee of 15BDT/USD0.18 which would yield a revenue of more than 6,750,000BDT/USD79,882 around the year. The authors believe, these results will push the policy-makers and encourage stakeholder participation to better implement and monitor environmental management measures at Patenga.
The selected techniques were reviewed and their technological aspects were characterized in the context of multi-phase flow for biogas production. The conditions of anaerobic fermentation for pig slurry in a mono-substrate reactor with skeleton bed were analysed. The required technical and technological criteria for producing raw biogas were indicated.
Design and construction of the mono-substrate model, biogas flow reactor, developed for cooperation with livestock buildings of various sizes and power from 2.5 kW to 40 kW. The installation has the form of a sealed fermentation tank filled with a skeletal deposit constituting a peculiar spatial system with regular shapes and a rough surface.
Incorporating a plant in such a production cycle that enables the entire slurry stream to be directed from the cowshed or pig house underrun channels to the reactor operating in the flow mode, where anaerobic digestion will take place, allows to obtain a biogas.
The paper presents preliminary results of experimental investigations in the field of hydrodynamic substrate mixing system for biogas flow assessment by the adhesive bed in the context of biogas production. The aim of the study was to assessment and shows the influence of the Reynolds number on the biogas resistance factor for the fermentation process in mono-substrate reactor with adhesive deposit. The measurement results indicate a clear effect of the Reynolds number in relation to the descending flow resistance coefficient for the adhesive bed.
The longitudinal motion characteristics of a slender trimaran equipped with and without a T-foil near the bow are investigated by experimental and numerical methods. Computational fluid dynamics ( CFD) method is used in this study. The seakeeping characteristics such as heave, pitch and vertical acceleration in head regular waves are analyzed in various wave conditions. Numerical simulations have been validated by comparisons with experimental tests. The influence of large wave amplitudes and size of T-foil on the longitudinal motion of trimaran are analyzed. The present systematic study demonstrates that the numerical results are in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The research implied that the longitudinal motion response values are greatly reduced with the use of T-foil.
On inland waterways the ship resistance and propulsive characteristics are strictly related to the depth of the waterway, thus it is important to have an understanding of the influence of water depth on ship hydrodynamic characteristics. Therefore, accurate predictions of hydrodynamic forces in restricted waterways are required and important. The aim of this paper is investigating the capability of the commercial unsteady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) solver to predict the influence of water depth on ship resistance. The volume of fluid method (VOF) is applied to simulate the free surface flow around the ship. The hull resistance in shallow and deep water is compared. The obtained numerical results are validated against related experimental studies available in the literature.
Modern solutions used in compression-ignition internal combustion engines are quite similar to each other. The use of high-pressure, direct fuel injection results in high combustion rates with controlled exhaust emissions. One of the combustion system quality criteria is to obtain adequately high thermodynamic indicators of the combustion process, which are obtained through, among others, the right combustion chamber geometry. Its shape influences the fuel atomization process, turbulence of fuel dose, evaporation and the combustion process. Optimizing the combustion chamber shape is one of the decisive factors proving the correct execution of the combustion process. This article presents the methodology of choosing the combustion chamber shape (changes of three selected combustion chamber dimensions) by using the optimization methods. Generating multidimensional data while maintaining the correlation structure was performed by using the Latin hypercube method. Chamber optimization was carried out by using the Nelder-Mead method. The combustion chamber shape was optimized for three engine load values (determined by the average indicated pressure) at selected engine operating conditions. The presented method of engine combustion chamber optimization can be used in low and high speed diesel propulsion engines (especially in maritime transport applications).
The issue of calculating parameters for lifting objects of axisymmetric shapes from the seabed is studied. The article presents the results of numerical simulation examination of the equation formulated by Foda for the force needed to extricate the object from the seabed depending on soil and water parameters, extrication speed, and object diameter. The simulations were performed within the range of parameters characteristic for real applications, and their results were used for deriving approximate algebraic formulas applicable in engineering practice of lifting objects resting on seabed.
Solar radiation (Rs) is an essential input for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration, ETo. An accurate estimate of ETo is the first step involved in determining water demand of field crops. The objective of this study was to assess the accuracy of fifteen empirical solar radiations (Rs) models and determine its effects on ETo estimates for three sites in humid tropical environment (Abakaliki, Nsukka, and Awka). Meteorological data from the archives of NASA (from 1983 to 2005) was used to derive empirical constants (calibration) for the different models at each location while data from 2006 to 2015 was used for validation. The results showed an overall improvement when comparing measured Rs with Rs determined using original constants and Rs using the new constants. After calibration, the Swartman–Ogunlade (R2 = 0.97) and Chen 2 models (RMSE = 0.665 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed best while Chen 1 (R2 = 0.66) and Bristow–Campbell models (RMSE = 1.58 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed least in estimating Rs in Abakaliki. At the Nsukka station, Swartman–Ogunlade (R2 = 0.96) and Adeala models (RMSE = 0.785 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed best while Hargreaves–Samani (R2 = 0.64) and Chen 1 models (RMSE = 1.96 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed least in estimating Rs. Chen 2 (R2 = 0.98) and Swartman–Ogunlade models (RMSE = 0.43 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed best while Hargreaves–Samani (R2 = 0.68) and Chen 1 models (RMSE = 1.64 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed least in estimating Rs in Awka. For estimating ETo, Adeala (R2 =0.98) and Swartman–Ogunlade models (RMSE = 0.064 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed best at the Awka station and Swartman–Ogunlade (R2 = 0.98) and Chen 2 models (RMSE = 0.43 MJ∙m−2∙day−1) performed best at Abakaliki while Angstrom–Prescott–Page (R2 = 0.96) and El-Sebaii models (RMSE = 0.0908 mm∙day−1) performed best at the Nsukka station.
Water quality is an important criterion for evaluating the suitability of water for drinking and domestic purpose. The main objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characterization of groundwater for drinking water consumption. Ten captured sources were selected from three aquifers including the Guelma Mio-Plio-Quaternary alluvial basin; the Senonian Heliopolis Neritic limestone aquifer, and the Eocene limestones of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua aquifer. The analyses concerned the periods of high water in May 2017 and low water in August 2017. Twelve parameters were determined for the water samples: pH, T (°C), EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−, SO42−, NO3−, TH (hydrotimetric degree), TAT (total alkalinity titration). The interpretation of the various analytical results allowed the determination of the chemical facies and the classification of the groundwater aquifers as follows: (i) in the alluvial layer, the gypsiferous marl substratum and the clays of the three terraces (high, medium and low) have given the water a chlorinated calcium chemical facies in the east part of the study area and travertines feeding partly alluvial layer, and have given a bicarbonated calcium water facies in the west, (ii) in the Senonian of Heliopolis limestone and Eocene carbonate formations of Ras El Agba-Sellaoua, the chemical facies are calcium bicarbonate. Water isotopes (δ18O and δD) helped to determine the origin of groundwater. Overall, the groundwater in the area is hard and has significant to excessive mineralization. It is progressively degraded in the direction of flow, especially in the Guelma alluvial aquifer.
The article presents an attempt to analyse population changes and to measure the strength of the impact of factors causing these changes in former voivodeship (province) cities in Poland. In view of the ongoing processes of suburbanisation, the discussion also concerns the areas surrounding the city, i.e. those creating urban systems together with the city. These zones were delineated, calling them demographic influence zones, because only demographic factors were involved in defining them. The research was conducted in the period between1999–2015, and took into account the administrative reform of the country that degraded 31 cities from voivodeship (NUTS-2) capitals to poviat (LAU-1) cities. The main aim of the study was to find an answer to the question: do the directions and the strength of population changes confirm a hypothesis of the destructive impact of the loss of administrative function on settlement units. The results of the study only partially confirmed this hypothesis. Although a decrease in the population is overwhelmingly predominant in the city core, in the case of the demographic influence zone, it has already increased. Counting both parts together, it was found that in half of the cases there was a decline and in the other half a growth of the population.
This study deals with a new concept of near-shore combined renewable energy system which integrates a monopile wind turbine and a floating buoy with heave-type wave energy converter( WEC). Wave energy is absorbed by power-take-off (PTO) systems. Four different shapes of buoy model are selected for this study. Power performance in regular waves is calculated by using boundary element method in ANSYS-AQWA software in both time and frequency domains. This software is based on three-dimensional radiation/diffraction theory and Morison’s equation using mixture of panels and Morison elements for determining hydrodynamic loads. For validation of the approach the numerical results of the main dynamic responses of WEC in regular wave are compared with the available experimental data. The effects of the heaving buoy geometry on the main dynamic responses such as added mass, damping coefficient, heave motion, PTO damping force and mean power of various model shapes of WEC in regular waves with different periods, are compared and discussed. Comparison of the results showed that using WECs with a curvature inward in the bottom would absorb more energy from sea waves.