Monitoring systems using automated electronic total stations are an important element of safety control of many engineering objects. In order to ensure the appropriate credibility of acquired data, it is necessary that instruments (total stations in most of the cases) used for measurements meet requirements of measurement accuracy, as well as the stability of instrument axis system geometry. With regards to the above, it is expedient to conduct quality control of data acquired using electronic total stations in the context of performed measurement procedures. This paper presents results of research conducted at the Faculty of Geodesy and Cartography at Warsaw University of Technology investigating the stability of “basic” error values (collimation, zero location for V circle, inclination), for two types of automatic total stations: TDA 5005 and TCRP 1201+. Research provided also information concerning the influence of temperature changes upon the stability of investigated instrument’s optical parameters. Results are presented in graphical analytic technique. Final conclusions propose methods, which allow avoiding negative results of measuring tool-set geometry changes during conducting precise deformation monitoring measurements.
To produce orthophotomaps or digital elevation models, the most commonly used method is photogrammetric measurement. However, the use of aerial images is not easy in polar regions for logistical reasons. In these areas, remote sensing data acquired from satellite systems is much more useful. This paper presents the basic technical requirements of different products which can be obtain (in particular orthoimages and digital elevation model (DEM)) using Very-High-Resolution Satellite (VHRS) images. The study area was situated in the vicinity of the Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station on the Western Shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Western Antarctic. Image processing was applied on two triplets of images acquired by the Pléiades 1A and 1B in March 2013. The results of the generation of orthoimages from the Pléiades systems without control points showed that the proposed method can achieve Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) of 3-9 m. The presented Pléiades images are useful for thematic remote sensing analysis and processing of measurements. Using satellite images to produce remote sensing products for polar regions is highly beneficial and reliable and compares well with more expensive airborne photographs or field surveys.
Currently the number of solar farms, as a type of renewable sources of energy, is growing rapidly. Photovoltaic power stations have many advantages, which is an incentive for their building and development. Solar energy is readily available and inexhaustible, and its production is environmentally friendly. In the present study multiple environmental and economic criteria were taken into account to select a potential photovoltaic farm location, with particular emphasis on: protected areas, land cover, solar radiation, slope angle, proximity to roads, built-up areas, and power lines. Advanced data analysis were used because of the multiplicity of criteria and their diverse influence on the choice of a potential location. They included the spatial analysis, the Weighted Linear Combination Technique (WLC), and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a decisionmaking method. The analysis was divided into two stages. In the first one, the areas where the location of solar farms was not possible were excluded. In the second one, the best locations meeting all environmental and economic criteria were selected. The research was conducted for the Legionowo District, using data from national surveying and mapping resources such as: BDOT10k (Database of Topographic Objects), NMT (Numerical Terrain Model), and lands and buildings register. Finally, several areas meeting the criteria were chosen. The research deals with solar farms with up to 40 kW power. The results of the study are presented as thematic maps. The advantage of the method is its versatility. It can be used not only for any area, but with little modification of the criteria, it can also be applied to choose a location for wind farms.
Among the ten species of the Nebria genus, present in the Romanian Carpathians, seven are the object of morphological, geographical distribution and molecular biological studies: Nebria (Eunebria) jockischi hoepfneri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) heegeri Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Boreonebria) gyllenhali Schönherr, 1806, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reitteri Rybinsky, 1902, Nebria (Alpaeonebria) bissenica Bielz, 1887, Nebria (Nebria) transsylvanica Germar, 1824, Nebria (Nebria) femoralis alpigrada Csiki 1905), collected from the Maramureș Mt., Rodnei Mt., Parâng Mt., Rarău Mt., Făgăraș Mt., Cozia Mt., Bucegi Mt., Retezat Mt., Muntele Mic and Semenic Mt. The morphological description exploits the body size, the elytral reflection, the colour of the appendages and the legs, the shape of the first antennary segment, its chaetotaxy and that of the submentum, the shape and size of the elytra and alae, the position of the bristles on the ventrites 4-5-6. The shape of the first antennary segment and its chaetotaxy appear as more discriminating criteria, but supposes the integrity of the bristles. The identification is sometimes malaise due to the fragility of the bristles (first antennomere, submentum). Nebria (Alpaeonebria) reichei Dejean, 1826 has a variable chaetotaxy of antenna, 1 to 3 bristles on the first antennomere. The individuals with yellow appendages and legs provided with 2 unequal length can be confused with transsylvanica. They are distinguished by the triangular shape of the aileron (S-shaped in transsylvanica). Molecular data are given for the first time on Carpathian Nebria. The mitochondrial markers (COI I, cyt b) clearly identify the species studied and confirm that alpigrada does not belong to transsylvanica. The results show an infraspecific variability of geographic and altitudinal origin in jockischi one of the most widespread species (gyllenhali, jockischi, reichei).
Real time monitoring of engineering structures in case of an emergency of disaster requires collection of a large amount of data to be processed by specific analytical techniques. A quick and accurate assessment of the state of the object is crucial for a probable rescue action. One of the more significant evaluation methods of large sets of data, either collected during a specified interval of time or permanently, is the time series analysis. In this paper presented is a search algorithm for those time series elements which deviate from their values expected during monitoring. Quick and proper detection of observations indicating anomalous behavior of the structure allows to take a variety of preventive actions. In the algorithm, the mathematical formulae used provide maximal sensitivity to detect even minimal changes in the object’s behavior. The sensitivity analyses were conducted for the algorithm of moving average as well as for the Douglas-Peucker algorithm used in generalization of linear objects in GIS. In addition to determining the size of deviations from the average it was used the so-called Hausdorff distance. The carried out simulation and verification of laboratory survey data showed that the approach provides sufficient sensitivity for automatic real time analysis of large amount of data obtained from different and various sensors (total stations, leveling, camera, radar).
In these paper are presented two ways of performing leveling through terrain obstacles. They use properties of the quasigeoid course with respect to the ellipsoid within a given area. The analysis of changes in quasigeoid to ellipsoid slope have been made on the basis of the national quasigeoid models, calculating the slope components ξ, η. This allows to present practical recommendations for location of intermediate benchmarks in the leveling methods through obstacles.
The discovery in the cartographic collections of the Faculty of Geography and Regional Studies at the University of Warsaw of an original map by Charles Dupin – the first choropleth map – provided an opportunity to conduct a closer methodological analysis of the map and to investigate the subsequent development of this presentation method during the first half of 19th century. From relatively early on, the accepted principle was for choropleth map presentations to use statistical data still imprecisely referred to as relative, as well as using a distribution series as a method of generalizing data.
The article discusses the problem of cartographic presentation of immaterial elements of city space. On the example of old city maps of Warsaw from the period between 1641 and the end of the 19th century, the image of objects and places in Warsaw is linked to the image of activities happening in them, or in connection with them. The author presents results of the analysis of the methods of presentation of immaterial elements, distinguishing three most numerous groups of them: nomenclature, functions and significance of objects, and property and administrative issues. The conclusions base on the analysis of 61 general city maps of Warsaw covering the whole city, elaborated in the periods 1641–1800, 1801–1900, and, supplementary, 1901–1939.
The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in school geographical atlases, especially in 19th and 20th century, was one of the elements of the perception of progress in cartography by the didactics of geography. The biggest changes, ongoing also today, concerned cartographic projections used to maps design.
The evolution of the geographical coordinate system is a part of this process and the basis of the theory of cartographic projections. In the paper there are described changes concerning the location of the Prime Meridian and the method of the description of longitude – elements necessary for the construction of the grid of meridians and parallels. These changes are presented on the basis of analysis of 665 atlases, what means all editions of Polish school geographical atlases between 1771 and 2012 identified by the author.
The evolution of the mathematical foundations of maps in Polish school atlases over more than two centuries is an example of assimilation of the newest trends and scientific researches that takes place between science and education.
The article tackles the difficult problem of identity creation of new inhabitants of western and northern Poland after 1945 and of relativism in the understanding of national identity after 1989. One of the manifestations are geographical names, which are reflected on maps. The authors of the article looked at this difficult, historically unprecedented process of integration and identification of new inhabitants with the geographical space through the prism of maps, entering into the contemporary discussion about the transformations taking place in the understanding of national identity.