Countries can check the performance of their logistics’ activities to determine their competitiveness in trade logistics. One way to check these performances is to analyze the country’s LPI value in detail which is released by the WB every two years. When calculating the LPI, six indicators (criteria) are taken into account. The weights (importance level) of these criteria are important for countries which would like to focus more on the most important criteria and move their ranking up in the LPI list. However the WB takes into account indicators (criteria) weights equally when calculating LPI values. In order to overcome this problem some studies have used subjective weighting methods and others have used objective weighting methods. Both methods have advantages and disadvantages. The aim of this study is to integrate two weighting methods (subjective (SWARA) and objective (CRITIC)) in determining the weights of criteria in order to balance the two weighting methods. Unlike other studies in the literature this study combines two weighting methods. Additionally the PIV method, which is seldom used to address any MCDM problem, is used in this study and a new integrated MCDM model is introduced to literature. In this respect this study contributes to the literature.
The study investigates the variation in population ageing in Polish provinces in 2002, 2010 and 2017. Population ageing was assessed using the median age, proportion of elderly people, double ageing index, ageing index, and old-age dependency ratio. The authors took into account causes that explain changes occurring at the bottom and at the top of the population pyramid. By applying the hybrid approach combining multidimensional scaling with linear ordering (the two-step approach), the authors identified differences in the level of population ageing in a two-dimensional space. The paper applies a new method of automatic data collection from the Local Data Bank using the BDL package and the API interface (Application Programming Interface). The BDL API is a data-sharing service through webservice defining programming interfaces independent of the programming language, whereas the bdl package using this API enables webservice integration with the R statistical environment, eliminating the need for manual data extraction and enabling the automation of recurring activities.
The paper attempts to compare European Union countries in terms of the dynamics of changes in the value of lamb meat imports in the period 2003-2017. The standard against which this comparison was made was the average value, which should be understood as the growth dynamics of the examined feature for all EU countries together. For this purpose, tools related to the so-called Grade Data Analysis, such as the index of the unlikeness of structures “ar” (in this case a good tool to determine the direction of changes and the speed of these changes for all EU countries) and overrepresentation maps (used to visualise these changes and for their interpretation). Additionally, with the help of GDA methods, EU countries were divided into groups characterised by smaller, medium and higher dynamics of changes in lamb imports. It can be concluded that the most dynamic growth in imports of this type of meat is found among the newest EU member states. This may indicate a change in dietary preferences in these countries. It may also be related to greater accessibility to goods previously considered as luxury, greater awareness of so-called healthy foods and the improved standard of living of societies that have joined the European Union.
This study aims to investigate the impact of savings and foreign direct investment on economic growth in Poland. Savings play an important role in achieving sustainable growth. High saving rates are also an important tool to increase resilience to financial shocks. The economic climate that emerged following the financial crisis revealed problems with the economy of Poland to obtain foreign financing. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to an unpredictable economic environment for developing countries such as Poland. The decrease in foreign direct investment has led to lower growth rates for an emerging market such as the economy of Poland. The relationship economic growth rate, saving and foreign direct investment are examined for Poland over the period 1992-2016 by using the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach. According to this approach there is a cointegration relationship between the series and a 1% increase in savings which leads to a 0.81% increase on economic growth rate. Also a 1% increase in foreign direct investment (FDI) leads to a 1.52% increase in the economic growth rate.
Corporate Governance (CG) in India has undergone major transformation in the recent past with the enactment of Companies Act, 2013 and revision of SEBI’s Listing Agreement. Though some studies were undertaken in the Indian context few conventional aspects of CG have been repetitively addressed with conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of some prominent CG attributes such as board size, board independence, role duality, board’s gender diversity, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on both market as well as accounting based measures of firm performance (FP). To this end the study uses a sample of top 100 non-financial and non-utility firms listed on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) for the period of 2014-2018 and employs two stage least square with instrumental variables technique of estimation which takes into account potential endogeneity in CG-FP relationship. The findings reveal a significant positive impact of board size, ownership concentration and audit committee independence on market based measure of FP while board independence is found to have a significant negative impact on accounting based measure of FP. Moreover role duality and gender diversity are not associated with FP. The outcome of this study highlights how the relationship between CG and FP works in the unique institutional setting of India and it should be of interest to regulators, practitioners and other market participants.
Financial accounting information plays an important role in assessing and forecasting firms’ financial performance. But besides that, there are other external factors affecting the performance of firms, such as economic and financial crises, which cause imbalances over the economy and affects the business environment. Thus, based on financial statements data, in this paper, the determinants of financial performance are examined, and the impact of a financial crisis on these factors is analyzed, using the fixed and random effects panel estimators. A sample of non-financial firms from European countries considering annual data for the period of 2006 to 2015 was used for this research. The results achieved by panel data analysis show that a crisis exerts a significant positive effect over financial performance as well as liquidity, assets turnover, and labor productivity, meaning that firms tend to put in greater efforts to maintain financial performance in the face of a crisis. Financial performance is significantly and negatively influenced by leverage independently of the crisis effect, showing return on assets to be lower than the average interest rate.