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Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the research were texts published on the websites of rural tourism facilities in Poland, and the purpose of the work was to assess their marketing quality.

Materials and methods: The evaluation of the marketing quality of the texts was carried out using the web application Audyt Hekko (Blink) on a collection of 842 websites of rural tourism facilities.

Results: Texts with a low (poor) marketing utility (as assessed by the testing algorithm) were found on 362 websites, which constituted approximately 44% of the set. Approximately 46.5% of the websites contained texts whose marketing utility was sufficient. Texts posted on 10% of the analysed websites were rated as useful for marketing.

Conclusions: The semantic evaluation of the texts published on most rural tourism facilities websites has shown that they have been written in the language of benefits, with the use of phrases that may arouse interest and curiosity. At the same time, however, they required optimization and a greater marketing orientation.


Tourism remains a very vulnerable sector and sensitive to both internal and external impacts, such as economic and social crises, natural disasters, epidemics and diseases, national and international conflicts. Among these, the most alarming threat in the 21st century remains terrorism. In this sense, this paper aims to study the effects of the increasingly frequent terrorist attacks by the extremist factions of Al-Qaeda and ISIL on the tourism industry in the Mediterranean Region. The contribution, after having discussed in general the tourism market in the Mediterranean Region, intends to highlight the impacts and repercussions of the terrorist attacks on tourism, presenting the example of Egypt and one of its best-known tourist destinations, Sharm el-Sheikh. In this sense, it is shown how, in a few years, the political instability of the country and the attacks of 2005 and 2016 have significantly reduced the influx of tourists, transforming it from one of the most visited destinations in the world in a place of increasing abandonment.


The contribution written by various representatives of Azerbaijani politics and culture, tends to highlight how the Azerbaijan is one of the few countries that symbolizes multiculturalism and multiconfessionality as a tool for dialogue, peace and coexistence. What is particularly important is the knowledge of the model of religious tolerance and secularism that currently Azerbaijan represents, also through the ‘conception of seminars and international public conferences on the issue as the “Forum on Intercultural Dialogue”. The Forum, founded in 2008, is promoted by UNESCO, the United Nations Alliance of Civilisations, the World Tourism Organisation, the Council of Europe and the Presidency of Azerbaijan.


There has been a large support given to building of cycling routes in Slovakia for last few years at all levels and many aspects. Not just legislative, strategic and technical point of view but also financial support is necessary to take in account. According to this big effort is necessary to be more focused on a question of evaluation of impacts on local communities. This article deals with analysis of cycling infrastructure impact on destination performance.


Subject and purpose of work: The paper focuses on identifying and assessing selected conditions and limitations of smart rural development in Poland. The concepts of smart development pointed out in the literature were used to analyse the results of field studies carried out in 2011 and 2016 in ten purposefully selected villages located in various regions of the country.

Materials and methods: The conclusions were drawn on the basis of empirical material which took a form of quantitative data and qualitative information gathered from the interviews with village mayors (sołtys) and observations of the interviewers. For the purpose of the paper the statistical methods were used and the analysis of the content of responses was performed.

Results and conclusions: The results of the surveys indicated a presence of both the potential of smart development in the surveyed villages and the barriers to it. The important determinants to activate local economic progress based on knowledge, education and new technologies were connected mainly with a convenient location and the environmental and cultural resources available. As for an insufficient level of valorisation of the aforementioned elements, it proved to be an obstacle to this process, which was largely due to the limited accumulation of human and social capital.


Thanks to the tumultuous development of digital technologies, nowadays we live in a world without boundaries, characterized by liquid communities that meet and collide, sometimes denying mutual recognition. We move in a communicative bulimia where information runs like in a circus where the sense and the value of ‘communicating’ are often lost, fuelling forms of misunderstanding, violence and exclusion that contribute to fuel discomfort and isolation. In the information and knowledge society, communication is increasingly discriminating for emancipation and empowerment of people, organizations, and communities. For this reason, in this essay, we intend to deepen both the evolution of the community’s space through digital technologies and the value and role of the concept of empowerment applied to community development. The essence of the essay is to reflect on its social implications in terms of welfare communities and valorization of the heritage of relational goods that are constitutive of every social and community space.


Subject and purpose of work: The work presents the emergence and shaping of basic economic issues since the dawn of human economic activity. Contemporary views on important economic issues have their roots in antiquity. The shaping of concepts such as money, interest, contract, credit as a part of the law, began a long time ago and exerted an influence on the way they are understood today.

Materials and methods: The basis for the considerations is the study of literature on the history of the development of economics and the science of management in economic, philosophical and ethical aspects. The work has shown the non-linear nature of the development of new phenomena emerging in volatile political, technical, religious and moral conditions, which are largely spontaneous, and a reciprocal overlap of various fields of knowledge in a general and individual sense. Particular discoverers were found to present a wide spectrum of interests.

Results: Historically, the development of economic knowledge began with the issues from the border of economics and management, from microeconomics (household) to macroeconomics (money); little information concerns large undertakings such as irrigation systems, pyramids or waging wars.

Conclusions: Generally speaking - monarchs’ edicts came before the deliberations of thinkers, concrete reasoning came before abstract considerations.


The territory of the Posavje Folds offers many geotourism potentials reflecting in particular in rich mining heritage. For a long time, local communities have considered them mainly in the context of local problems, but nowadays we may see individual examples of successful revitalization of cave chambers and mining structures. All that has given rise to fantastic stories about the mining wealth of the underground world and the mining heritage interpreted with modern approaches and new findings. In addition to managers and heritage owners, the revitalization process also includes scientists, artists, architects and educators who, each in their own way, contribute to a holistic perspective of the values of the past in light of contemporary understanding of this type of heritage. As a result, the territory has witnessed the revitalization of the medieval lead and silver mine Padež pri Laškem, the former Laško coal mine machine room, which was transformed into the Strojnica Gallery, and the polymineral mine Sitarjevec within the last five years. All mentioned examples are cases of abandoned mining activities with long-lasting mining tradition, which left an imprint in the area in terms of the diverse social structure of the population and in terms of town development, which also allows us to evaluate from a distance the contribution to the construction of the railway between Vienna and Trieste, which put these towns on the European map of centres of industrial significance in the mid-19th century. Trains that still connect the Austrian capital with the Adriatic coast may in future, in light of sustainable green tourism, attract curious guests to stop and linger a while, which is the ultimate goal of the attempts of local communities to revitalise mining heritage. Meanwhile, the goals set can only be realised with the help of new and attractive tourist products that reflect own creativity related with tradition ranging from design ideas, music events, art installations, popular science evenings; in short, with contents that are suited to visitors of all ages.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study was to evaluate activities of farms located in the Czarnorzecko-Strzyżowski Landscape Park according to the principles of sustainable development.

Materials and methods: Survey research was carried out in the Korczyna commune among randomly selected farm owners at the turn of 2014 and 2015.

Results and conclusion: Agricultural production is rather versatile and unspecialized in most of the farm-holdings covered by the study in Korczyna Local Government Area (LGA). Cereals dominate the cropping system, while animal husbandry is predominantly by using the Simmental cattle breed. The farmers are aware that they farm in specific conditions, where sustainable land use is crucial for protecting biodiversity and preserving cultural heritage, thus permitting inhabitants to live in an uncontaminated environment. The Korczyna Local Government Area enjoys favourable conditions for the running of ecological farms, but with farmers visibly lacking in motivation as they consider such farming system as unprofitable, besides requiring lots of time and work.