Projection of a complicated geometry of industrial objects is the complex issue, which requires properly planned and prepared measurements. Such objects must be accurately inventoried, but their complicated nature often makes the access and the visibility of their entire surface very difficult. Documentation of measurements is often prepared in the form of sketches, plans or maps, which are amended with photographic documentation. The objective of this paper is to test the possibilities to apply laser scanning and the network of digital images for inventory and monitoring of technical conditions of industrial objects. Processing of a precise documentation acquired basing on terrestrial laser scanning data or dense points clouds generated from digital images still causes many difficulties and problems. Although data processing algorithms have been intensively developed with respect to generation of high resolution orthoimages or precise vector drawings, the existing problems are still connected with limitations related to imperfections of both techniques of measurements.
The identification of isometric displacements of studied objects with utilization of the vector product is the aim of the analysis conducted in this paper. Isometric transformations involve translation and rotation. The behaviour of distances between check points on the object in the first and second measurements is a necessary condition for the determination of such displacements. For every three check points about the measured coordinate, one can determine the vector orthogonal to the two neighbouring sides of the triangle that are treated as vectors, using the definition of the vector product in three-dimensional space. If vectors for these points in the first and second measurements are parallel to the studied object has not changed its position or experienced translation. If the termini of vectors formed from vector products treated as the vectors are orthogonal to certain axis, then the object has experienced rotation. The determination of planes symmetric to these vectors allows the axis of rotation of the object and the angle of rotation to be found. The changes of the value of the angle between the normal vectors obtained from the first and second measurements, by exclusion of the isometric transformation, are connected to the size of the changes of the coordinates of check points, that is, deformation of the object. This paper focuses mainly on the description of the procedure for determining the translation and rotation. The main attention was paid to the rotation, due to the new and unusual way in which it is determined. Mean errors of the determined parameters are often treated briefly, and this subject requires separate consideration.
The paper presents technology and results of measurements of the steel construction of the skylight of the Main Hall of the Warsaw University of Technology. The new version of the automated measuring system has been used for measurements. This system is based on Leica TCRP1201+ total station and the TCcalc1200 software application, developed by the author, which operates on a laptop computer connected with the total station by the wire. Two test measurements were performed. Each of them consisted of cyclic measurement using the polar method, from one station; points located on the skylight construction, as well as control points located on concrete, bearing poles, were successively measured. Besides geometrical values (such as Hz, V angles and the slope distance D), the changes of temperature and atmospheric pressure, were also recorded. Processed results of measurements contained information concerning the behaviour of the skylight; asymmetry of horizontal displacements with respect to the X axis have been proved. Changes of parameters of the instrument telescope and changes of the instrument orientation were also stated; they were connected with changes of the temperature. The most important results of works have been presented in the form of diagrams.
Electronic tacheometers are currently the standard instruments used in geodetic work, including also geodetic engineering measurements. The main advantage connected with this equipment is among others high accuracy of the measurement and thus high accuracy of the final determinations represented for example by the points’ coordinates. One of many applications of the tacheometers is the measurement of crane rail axes. This measurement is based on polar method and it allows to get the spatial coordinates of points in 3D local system. The standard technology of measurement of crane rail axes and development of its calculations’ results is well-known and widely presented in the subject literature. At the same time new methods of observations results evaluation are developing.
Some new proposals for the development of measurement results were already presented in (Kamiński, 2013).
This paper is a generalisation of the paper quoted above. The authors developed the concept which was presented there by a proposal for determining rectification corrections for semi gantry crane rail axes. To carried out the task, the parametric method with conditions on parameters was used. Moreover the practical tests on simulated measurement results were conducted. The results obtained from alignment confirmed the theoretical assumptions.
Despite the fact that analyses were carried out only on the simulated data, it is already possible to say that presented method for determination of rectification corrections for crane rail axes can be used for development of the observations from real measurement.
The paper presents control periodic measurements of movements and survey of concrete dam on Dunajec River in Rożnów, Poland. Topographical survey was conducted using laser scanning technique. The goal of survey was data collection and creation of a geometrical model. Acquired cross- and horizontal sections were utilised to create a numerical model of object behaviour at various load depending of changing level of water in reservoir. Modelling was accomplished using finite elements technique. During the project an assessment was conducted to terrestrial laser scanning techniques for such type of research of large hydrotechnical objects such as gravitational water dams. Developed model can be used to define deformations and displacement prognosis.
The paper presents a least squares collocation - based alternative to Helmert’s transformation with Hausbrandt’s post – transformation correction. The least squares collocation is used as an exact predictor i.e. it honors the data, thus the problem of zero residuals on transformation control points is overcome and zero residuals are assured by the method applied. Despite the fact that the procedure is presented for Helmert’s transformation it may easily be copied to any other form of coordinate transformation. A numerical example is provided within the content of the paper.
This paper presents results of a research of potential utilisation of the intensity of laser beam reflection recorded by ground-based lasers, for an initial classification of rock formations within the Czatkowice Limestone Quarry. As part of the research, spectrometric analysis in visible (VIS), near-infrared (NIR) and Short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) bands was carried out for rock samples typical for the Czatkowice Quarry. Moreover, the rock samples were scanned using equipment working within different wavelengths. The reflected intensity of the laser beam recorded for each rock sample with several different scanners were analysed to assess their potential use for rock classification. The results of this analysis were then compared with spectral curves of each sample. The relationship between the intensity of the laser beam reflection and the spectral curves can be used for selection of most suitable scanner for rock classification.
As a result of traditional geodetic surveying we usually achieve observations which are then used for calculating rectangular coordinates onto a plane along with precision evaluation. In this article the surveying methods are presented in which the situation is different. Test measurements were carried out, consisting in the measurement of a fragment of detailed control network in RTK (Real Time Kinematic) and RTX (Real Time Extended) mode with xFill function. First, the rectangular coordinates onto a plane (through the transformation of data ellipsoidal) were obtained, on the basis of which the conversion observations were determined and they were compared with each other, as well as with reference parameters - conversion observations out of detailed control network adjustment with use of the method of least squares. The results of the study allow to verify the precision and application possibilities of conversion observations obtained thanks to Trimble RTX technology with xFill function. Application of this surveying method in typical geodetic tasks is fully justifiable. Nevertheless, it is recommendable to be aware of the correlations of absolute or relative values obtained in RTX procedure to reference parameters, which in turn will enable conclusive verification of the possibilities of Trimble RTX technology application in certain geodetic surveys.
The study concerns computation of the gravity potential difference between the Kronsztadt86 datum and the global vertical datum. This method is based on the use of ellipsoidal heights from satellite observations, normal heights obtained from the conducted leveling campaign and quasigeoid/ellipsoid separations computed based on the EGM2008 model. The obtained results indicate that there are substantial differences in the estimated value of the parameter ΔW, computed from three different satellite networks: POLREF, EUVN-DA and ASG-EUPOS. The parameter was determined with sufficient accuracy and the applied systematic error model has low efficiency. The computations reveal that the best value of ΔW for the territory of Poland is 0.43 m2s-2.
In navigation practice, there are various navigational architecture and integration strategies of measuring instruments that affect the choice of the Kalman filtering algorithm. The analysis of different methods of Kalman filtration and associated smoothers applied in object tracing was made on the grounds of simulation tests of algorithms designed and presented in this paper. EKF (Extended Kalman Filter) filter based on approximation with (jacobians) partial derivations and derivative-free filters like UKF (Unscented Kalman Filter) and CDKF (Central Difference Kalman Filter) were implemented in comparison. For each method of filtration, appropriate smoothers EKS (Extended Kalman Smoother), UKS (Unscented Kalman Smoother) and CDKS (Central Difference Kalman Smoother) were presented as well. Algorithms performance is discussed on the theoretical base and simulation results of two cases are presented.