The aim of this paper is to present an overview of protected areas in Polish seaside spa towns in order to preserve their nature value while focusing on the spatial order. Analyses were conducted considering the status of works on the Landscape Act concerning the interior of Polish spa towns and advantageous effects of that Act in the town space. This review paper presents protected areas based on the resources of the Central Register of Nature Conservation Forms (Centralny Rejestr Form Ochrony Przyrody CRFOP) available at the website of the General Directorate for Environmental Protection (Generalna Dyrekcja Ochrony Środowiska GDOŚ), which data may find multiple uses. The material for analyses is related to all the six Polish seaside spa towns (as for 01.2020). Polish seaside spa towns have many common natural characteristics. All of the six towns are located on the Baltic Sea, have sandy beaches and dunes and they are situated in the vicinity of protected areas. Frequently a green belt, typically a pine forest, separates the seaside zone from the town. Despite its very long seaside line Poland in 2019 has only six seaside spa towns (Kołobrzeg, Świnoujście, Sopot, Kamień Pomorski, Ustka, Dąbki).
This paper presents a proposal for updating and expanding the teaching of technical university students concerning the subject of roofs. Through the analysis of Polish textbooks and teaching studies, a lack of information on retractable roofs was identified. As a consequence, a lecture was prepared to fill this gap and presented to students of the Faculty of Civil Engineering and to teaching staff of the Silesian University of Technology. The main components of the lecture are presented in this article. Furthermore, a discussion was undertaken to analyse the possibilities of incorporating new content (in the form of supplementary material) into the currently run courses as well as into optional classes such as student workshops and optional facultative courses.
One of the modern methods of reducing vibrations of plates and beams is using piezoelectric materials in the form of distributed elements or patches (applied in a passive or an active system). However, for the multimodal response of a structure, there is no possibility to place the actuators in exactly the areas with maximum curvature values for each mode. Additionally, in the case of passive multimodal suppression systems – in which energy is needed to be supplied to the system – there is the necessity to create a complicated electrical circuit. The particular electrical shunts of the circuit are tuned to the specific vibration forms which require damping. The main objective of this article is to show the possibility of creating a multimodal vibration suppression system with typical resonant shunts and proposed second slightly modified.
The proposed self-adjusting mechanism consists of a carousel rotor with a vertical axis consisting of two kinematically connected flat blades. The torque of this rotor can change the position of the directing unit and additionally the position of the main propeller in order to direct the wind stream or save the main rotor when the wind is too strong. The theory, principles of operation, and the properties of the self-adjusting system were illustrated by formulas and graphs. Based on research conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel, the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the flat blades were determined, and then the power and propeller torque of the rotor were found as a function of the angle of wind attack. A computational procedure provides kinematical and force relations as well as the resulting torque diagrams of the rotor. An example of the use and the design structure of a self-adjusting unit in the case of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented.
Accessing finances for housing has been a major problem for people on low-incomes and this has been weighing heavily on them as they try to access housing. Financial institutions in the city of Bulawayo are failing to come up with financial products that suit low-income clients. There are an estimated 110000 low-income residents among the estimated 250000 residents of Cowdray Park low-density residential area in Bulawayo. This has also affected their right to the city as they have been excluded from the housing delivery system. There are so many initiatives that have been available to those on a low-income but these initiatives have rarely benefited the urban poor of the city. This research has examined how the financial services that exist in the housing sector have been crafted to benefit the urban poor. The research employed a mixed methods approach to the inquiry, where a questionnaire was the main quantitative method used and in-depth interviews and observations were the qualitative methods that complemented it. The research found that there are various financial services that are available in Zimbabwe, but these financial facilities rarely help the urban poor. The majority of the poor have been managing without any financial support and this has been stalling their access to housing. Most housing products are fashioned along neo-liberal economic principles that have very little to offer the urban poor. This has therefore denied the urban poor in the city of Bulawayo their right to the city. Most cities in Zimbabwe are struggling to satisfy their housing demand as they have long housing waiting lists. Research therefore recommends the crafting of financial facilities that are best targeted on the urban poor, and are specially adapted to their financial conditions.
Slum redevelopment is occurring at a rapid pace in many African cities. This paper examines the urban development of contemporary Luanda, the capital of Angola. Central to this examination is an analysis of the city’s slums according to Foucault’s concept of governmentality. The focus is on the chaotic urban development that has resulted from the civil war and on the effects of poverty and gentrification in many of Luanda’s slums. The policy of violence towards slum population adopted by the municipality appears to define a technology of domination, the subjection of the individual to the formation of the state. However, with the high earnings obtained from oil production, the country clearly has the resources needed to fund investments in electricity and utility systems. The continuing persistence of slums and a housing policy based on neglect signifies a form of governmentality, adopted as a means of government coercion and a way of dominating the poor population. The paper closes with a set of policy implications for action.
The economic and social drivers of democratisation and the emergence and establishment of democratic institutions are longstanding themes of academic discourse. Within this broad body of literature, it has been argued that the process of urbanisation is also conducive to the emergence and consolidation of democracy through a number of different channels. Cities offer better access to education and facilitate organised public action and the demand for more democratic rule and respect of human rights. The nexus between urbanisation and human rights is the theme that is taken up in the present paper. Using a sample of 123 countries for the period 1981–2011, the paper examines empirically the association between urbanisation and human empowerment using the Cingranelli-Richards Index. In broad terms, the findings reported herein do not point to a strong nexus across all income groups. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting the presence of such a statistically significant positive association in specific cases.
Verschiebungen bzw. wechselseitige Bedingtheiten von neuen gesellschaftlichen Ein- und Ausschlüssen im Prozess der Internationalisierung und Diversifizierung von Städten genauer zu betrachten, ist Ziel dieses Beitrags. Mithilfe der Paradoxie im Sinne eines heuristischen Zugangs werden scheinbar widersprüchliche Ein- und Ausschlüsse von Migration in einem langjährigen stadtentwicklungspolitischen Schwerpunktraum der Stadt Leipzig untersucht. Eine Analyse der lokalen Berichterstattung und stadtentwicklungspolitischer Dokumente zeigt, dass im Diskurs um die Leipziger Eisenbahnstraße eine klassische urbane Diskursfigur reproduziert wird. Dabei wird Migration einerseits als produktiver Faktor im Sinne einer ökonomischen Ressource verhandelt und andererseits als Faktor unproduktiver Devianz problematisiert. Da Formen der Inklusion gewünschter Zuwanderung an anderer Stelle an Ausschlüsse und Kontrolle unerwünschter Zuwanderung gekoppelt werden, entstehen paradox erscheinende diskursive Logiken im Umgang mit einem pluralisierten und stark durch Migration geprägten Stadtraum. Der Ausruf einer Parallelwelt, der an eine zu integrierende Migrationsbevölkerung gerichtet ist, sowie die Beschwörung der „Stadt der Vielfalt“, die eher diffus und damit weitestgehend anonym bleibt, stehen jedoch im Widerspruch zu einer allgemeinen Anerkennung migrationsgesellschaftlicher Realität. Trotzdem oder gerade weil Leipzig eine Vorreiterrolle im ostdeutschen Kontext in puncto Migration einnimmt, entbehrt sie (noch) der Selbstverständlichkeit und bleibt eine hochgradig sensible Angelegenheit.