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Categorising Resources of Historical Memory in Researching Publicistic Text

Abstract

The article focuses on the allocation and analysis of the main resources of historical memory which are considered as peculiar indicators for studying publicist content and conceptual reading of discourses of historical memory in contemporary publications. It is relevant insofar as researching the use and intensification of these or other resources of historical memory allows us to observe changes in world landmarks, socio-political moods, ideological references and temperament and the dynamics of re-interpretation of historical facts and events by authors.

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Dimitri Kirsanoff: The Elusive Estonian

Abstract

This article investigates the contradictory information about the Estonian identity of the filmmaker Dimitri Kirsanoff (1899–1957) and examines the archival material that provides final confirmation of his birth and childhood in Tartu. In addition, Kirsanoff’s substantial contribution to silent cinema and his significance in the context of French avant-garde impressionism are discussed. Kirsanoff’s most acclaimed film Ménilmontant (France, 1926) was released 90 years ago. It is still frequently screened all over the world, due to its experimental montage techniques, the early use of handheld cameras, its innovative use of actual locations and the actors’ performances that still resonate with contemporary audiences. Ménilmontant is also influential because of its elliptical narrative style. However, with the advent of sound film, Kirsanoff’s career declined because the reorganisation of the film industry limited the creative freedom he enjoyed in the 1920s. This article attempts to contribute to a wider acknowledgement of Dimitri Kirsanoff’s Estonian origins, his films and his important place in the world cinema.

Open access
Exploring the Ways Cinematography Affects Viewers’ Perceived Empathy towards Onscreen Characters

Abstract

In the history of cinematography there is a noticeable tradition to deliberately highlight the elements that accentuate space and spatiality in the shots. At the same time, there is also a contrary tradition, i.e. the conscious reduction of spatiality with the help of artistic tools in order to evoke a feeling of alienation. In this article I will argue that it is highly likely that the visual reinforcement of depth has become one of a cinematographer’s most frequently used tools, because it plays an important role in the audience’s perceived empathy towards onscreen characters. Since the practices of art-making – e.g. cinematography – represent a way that the empirical experience accumulated in professional practices reflects underlying neural processes, this article will first draw upon evidence from the common tenets of cinematography and reflect on how these correspond to the respective phenomena in human perception and cognition. The second part of the article examines the theory of the para-dramatic and eso-dramatic factors established by Gal Raz and Talma Hendler as it applies to cinematography; thereby suggesting possibilities for broadening the theoretical foundations of the twofold division of the causes for the viewers’ empathetic responses. The article will also introduce the results from a pilot experiment. However, I will not argue that the rendering of cinematographic space and drawing attention to certain areas are superior tools for creating filmic empathy. I will rather point out that they are often used by cinematographers when they want to create an immersive experience, and therefore, there is reason to believe that a connection exists between emotional empathy and the usage of these cinematographic tools.

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Greek Civil Society’s Online Alternative Networks as Emergent Resilience Strategies in Time of Crisis

Abstract

The use of new communications technologies and social media, in Greece, during the time of crisis, has led to the development of numerous online informal Civil Society Networks (CSNs) (i.e. networking-building platforms, self - organized groups in Facebook, forums, exchange platforms) proposing a rethinking of the status quo of formal civil organizations. This research, utilizing the methodology of discourse analysis, aims at summarizing the rise of these networks in Greece that incorporates both solidarity initiatives and autonomous political/economic spaces and identify the indicative predictive factors of their survival and growth. Some basic conclusions that have been drawn through this research is that alternative online networks can be proven as indicative sign of the social dynamism of a given period but in order to be resilient and sustainable they should develop focal points of physical reference, pursue national representation, focus mainly on monothematic goods/services and cultivate, in several cases, links with relevant social movements and local or national NGOs. A general induction through this research is that a CSN, during this current crisis, stands between two classical models of reference in a society seeking modernity and flexibility and can be considered as a proposed type of effective experimentation and mobilization that can pursue common social goals and serve needs of deprived people. Some issues that still remain underexplored and need further elaboration are social and political identity of participants, the potential links with local, national and international communities, the functional balance between structure and flexibility as well as the efficient distribution of energy between solidarity and protest.

Open access
The Image of the Country in Journalists’ Tweets – Case Study

Abstract

This article attempts to assess the role of Twitter in international communication on the basis of intentionally selected part of reality. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the potential impact of messages, posted in the microblogging service by the internationally recognized journalist, on creating the image of Poland in the world. Case study was carried out on the example of Anne Applebaum’s Twitter account.

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On the Topics and Style of Soviet Animated Films

Abstract

This article provides a survey of Soviet animation and analyses the thematic and stylistic course of its development. Soviet animated film emerged and materialised in synch with the fluctuations of the region’s political climate and was directly shaped by it. A number of trends and currents of Soviet animation also pertain to other Eastern European countries. After all, Eastern Europe constituted an integrated cultural space that functioned as a single market for the films produced across it by filmmakers who interacted in a professional regional network of film education, events, festivals, publications etc.

Initially experimental, post-revolutionary Russian animation soon fell under the sway of the Socialist Realist discourse, along with the rest of Soviet art, and quickly crystallised as a didactic genre for children. Disney’s paradigm became its major source of inspiration both in terms of visual style and thematic scope, despite the fact that Soviet Union was regarded as the ideological opposite of the Western way of life and mindset. The Soviet animation industry was spread across different studios and republics that adopted slightly varied production practices and tolerated different degrees of artistic freedom. Studios in the smaller republics, such as Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania in particular, stood out for making films that were more ideologically complicated than those produced in Moscow.

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Post-Dependence Discourse in the Language of Politicians of Prawo I Sprawiedliwość and Platforma Obywatelska

Abstract

The aim of this thesis was to analyze the speeches of politicians of the two largest Polish parties: Prawo i Sprawiedliwość and Platforma Obywatelska, using post-dependence theory. The work describes postcolonial and post-dependence theories, presents socially political divisions – in the categories of right wing and left wing politics – and describes the methodological issues of critical discourse analysis. The subject of analysis in the research part of the thesis were politics’ speeches on the following topics: the “Rodzina 500+” programme, terrorist attacks, the dispute with the Constitutional Court in Poland, Brexit and the Smolensk catastrophe. The goal of the analysis was to find the post-dependence discourse features.

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Transcending ‘Cold Intimacies’ in Veiko Õunpuu’s Works

Abstract

This article examines five films by Veiko Õunpuu, Estonia’s most renowned contemporary director – Empty (Tühirand, Estonia, 2006), Autumn Ball (Sügisball, Estonia, 2007), Temptations of St Tony (Püha Tõnu kiusamine, Estonia/Finland/Sweden, 2009), Free Range: Ballad on Approving of the World (Free Range: ballaad maailma heakskiitmisest, Estonia, 2013) and Roukli (Estonia, 2015), focusing on his representations of neoliberalism and especially its effect on the emotional and intimate lives of the characters. We argue that the characters of his films typically reject the conventional romance promoted by neoliberal discourses, including Hollywood cinema, yet this does not make them happy, but disoriented and restless. The repudiation of ‘emotional capitalism’ also pertains to the way Õunpuu’s films are conceived and executed. Most importantly, he resists the conventions of Hollywood cinema, including a classical script and happy ending, and also sets and shoots his films in peripheral places. Our main theoretical framework is the concept of ‘emotional capitalism’ as elaborated by Eva Illouz.

Open access
Anglicisms in Online German Newspapers and Magazines. A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Articles in ‘Die Welt’, ‘Der Spiegel’, and ‘Der Stern’ in February 2016

Abstract

Needless to say, words originating in English largely influence other languages. As postulated by Plümer [2000, p. 28], since the nineteenth century English has become the main donor language for German and due to the ongoing influx of Anglicisms used in German both in Fachsprache, i.e. German for specific purposes and on a daily basis, lexical interference between the two languages increases. Some linguists oppose the excessive use of words originating in English postulating that as a consequence, German may become a peripheral language, whereas others posit that it indicates openness to world and language development. The study focuses on the application of Anglicisms in German newspapers in February 2016. The corpus encompasses 90 articles in online versions of three newspapers, viz. Die Welt, Der Spiegel and Der Stern, structured into three categories, be it Beauty, Politics, and IT. Every category covered thirty parallel topics, in order to arrive at a succinct yet comprehensive summary of the total ratio of Anglicisms. The article was divided into four main categories, i.e. theoretical framework, quantitative analysis, qualitative analysis, and concluding remarks.

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Cognitive Theories and the Concept of Journalism

Abstract

The general aim of cognitivists - the attempt to compare logical and illogical, rational and irrational in the human behavior - can be considered as one of the main object not only in the psychology, but also in the journalism. If you don’t take into account assumed problems, the truth can be treated as a lie, an importance as an irrationality, an advantage as defects. In practice the ignorance of balancing, consonance and knowledge for the benefit of “must” turned round for tendentiousness, propaganda, manipulation, rationing of authoritarian and totalitarian models of journalism or for passing from journalistic standards in total. Therefore the article describes the spectrum of cognition in the context of modern Journalism and problems of Media practices, including the balance in journalism in terms of theories of consistency.

Open access