Executive function deficits, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and inattention can have a negative impact on a child’s self-efficacy beliefs. Forty-eight children with high intensity ADHD symptoms and 56 children with low intensity symptoms in ages 8 to 10 years completed the Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and executive function tests. Rating Scales for Teachers and Parents were completed for each child to measure the ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and executive function deficits were associated with lower self-efficacy beliefs especially in two spheres: academic achievement and self-control. Implications of these findings for child therapy are discussed.
My article investigated the drivers of shopping mall attractiveness. Which of various shopping mall qualities are key to building a mall’s attractiveness? This was the fundamental question in the cross-sectional, survey-based correlational study. The participants included 384 adult Poles (192 men and 192 women whose median age was 22). The survey included 58 items – nine to measure the shopping mall’s attractiveness (its emotional impact, cognitive effect and the customer’s visiting frequency), and 49 to measure its hypothetical predictors. The investigated objects were six urban shopping malls in Wroclaw, Poland. It turned out that shopping mall attractiveness was driven mainly by their atmosphere and social positioning. Surprisingly, the more subjectively noisy and crowded the shopping mall was, the more attractive it appeared to be; commerce-related features, on the other hand, while usually treated as vital to a shopping center, contributed relatively little to the mall’s attractiveness.
Marcin Czub, Joanna Piskorz, Mateusz Misiewicz, Paweł Hodowaniec, Małgorzata Mrula and Katarzyna Urbańska
Virtual Reality (VR) technology can be applied during pain treatment, acting as an effective distractor from pain stimuli. In our paper we investigate how memory influences experienced intensity of thermal pain stimuli. An experiment (within subject design) was conducted on 35 students from various Wroclaw universities. A cold pressor test was used for pain stimulation. Participants were immersed in customized virtual environments, created for this particular study. The environments differed at the level of memory engagement while playing a game. Pain measures were determined by the length of time participants kept their hands in cold water (pain tolerance), and their pain rating intensity was measured on the VAS scale (pain intensity). Participants were asked to put their hand in a container with cold water and keep it there until the pain became difficult to bear.
In both VR conditions participants kept their hands in the cold water significantly longer than in a non-VR (control) condition. Results of pain intensity measures were in conclusive. We did not find any significant differences in effectiveness in the virtual environments that were used.
Agnieszka Woźniewicz, Joanna Kalinowska, Małgorzata Anna Basińska and Bogdan Pietrulewicz
Taking care of a paraplegic may contribute to the caregiver’s fatigue. Sixty family caregivers participated in our study, out of which 30 provided care for paraplegics in hospital, and 30 for paraplegics at home. The Orientation to Life Qestionnaire (SOC-29) was used to measure individual sense of coherence, The Life Orientation Test - Revised for dispositional optimism, The Polish Resiliency Assessment Scale for resiliency, and The Daily Life Fatigue Questionnaire for daily life fatigue. In order to collect data about caregivers an individual examination was applied. People with higher personal resource levels such as sense of coherence, optimism and resiliency are characterized by less severe daily life fatigue.
This study examines whether social support perceived from different sources can significantly predict behavioral problems in children from alcoholic families. Participants are composed of 540 children in three age groups. We use the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale and Youth Self Report/YSR 11-18. Our finding was that children of alcoholics have a greater risk of externalizing symptoms in comparison to children of non-alcoholics. Social support significantly predicts behaviour problems in the different life periods. In alcoholic families it was observed that mother, teacher and peer support negatively correlated with externalizing problems in the different developmental periods. Regression Analysis showed that the important predictors for externalizing such problems are low levels of support from teachers (in middle childhood and late adolescence), peers (in middle childhood) and mothers (in early adolescence). Our concluding remark is that social support perceived by children of alcoholics differs from the support perceived by children from control groups. This is important for prevention and therapy.
Our study reveals the psychosocial changes occurring in Polish students on the Internet in the last seven years. The study comprised two stages (2005 and 2012). The analyses indicated that while the Internet’s intense use has lowered, the factors facilitating Internet risk addiction have become more pronounced. Such risk factors are: the manner of using the Internet (entertainment, pornography); relationships in the cyber community; and time spent online (the more time spent, the greater the risk of addiction). The lower the self-esteem the higher the risk of addiction. However, the percentage of people with Internet addiction symptoms has remained static.
Dorota Kuncewicz, Ewa Sokołowska and Jolanta Sobkowicz
The theory of literature provides tools for interpreting language communication. A psychologist, when interpreting a communication - which is often a latent one - has no other alternative but to employ these tools (with the exception of non-verbal communication). Often, however, this stage of work is defined as “intuitive”, which significantly limits the repeatability of the procedure and thus gives rise to reservations as to its scientific value. Review of certain literary theory devices, along with their possible applications, allows for naming these tools, selecting, and ordering the consecutive stages of communication analysis. In our opinion, such reviewing opens up the possibility for filling this gap in qualitative research analysis with specific tools and specific ways of using these tools in place of intuitiveness.
The main goals of this study are 1) to explore whether internal relationship patterns are related to personality organization, and 2) to recognize the role that selected relationship patterns play in diagnosing personality organization levels. Internal relationship patterns were assessed according to the core conflictual relationship theme (CCRT) - about wishes (WS), responses from others (RO), and responses of the self (RS) - as identified from participants’ self-narratives about important relationships. Significant differences in the frequencies of patterns were found among participants with borderline personality organization (BPO), neurotic personality organization (NPO), and integrated personality (IPO). For example, the majority of negative RS responses were detected in the BPO sample. The study supports the thesis that relationship patterns might be related to personality organization, and that object representation complexity may be a good predictor of integrated personality organization.
Our article deals with the problem of ‘nestlings’ - young adults who postpone the moment of entering adulthood. A brief review of data and research results indicates that delays in undertaking developmental tasks typical of adulthood refer to a professional job, starting a family or a relationship, and gaining independence (not only financially). We discuss cultural, economic and psychological contexts of nestling, and attempt to answer the question whether waiting for adulthood is a global problem or a problem specific to only certain countries or just to Poland. It seems necessary to undertake research on this phenomenon. Nestling ought to be explored not only from the adult child’ perspective but from the parental perspective as well.
This study investigates the role that temperament and resiliency play in posttraumatic growth among people who have experienced the death of someone close. Seventy-four participants completed a series of questionnaires measuring posttraumatic growth, using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, resiliency by the Resiliency Assessment Scale, and temperamental traits using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory. The respondents’ ages ranged from 21 to 74 years (M=38.4; SD=15.5), with 63.5% being women. Most participants had lost a parent - 37.8%. Results reveal that increased appreciation for life and improved relations with others are the most prevalent areas of posttraumatic growth.
Findings suggest that posttraumatic growth is more likely to be determined by resiliency defined as skills gained from coping with various difficult events rather than biologically determined temperamental traits.