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Football clubs’ sports performance in the context of their market value and GDP in the European Union regions

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the sporting success of football clubs, their market value and the economic performance of the regions they are located in. All member states of the European Union are under consideration, taking into account the success of the clubs in the highest-ranked male national football competitions and in European cups. The data are processed at NUTS 2 level over a period of one decade (2007–2016). From a methodological point of view, it is beneficial to construct original indexes of clubs’ sporting performance – both at the national level, and an overall one that also takes into account results in international (European) competition. To determine the existence of a link between the sporting performance of the club, its market value and the economic performance of the regional level unit it is located in (measured by gross domestic product), correlation and regression analysis is utilised. For example, the results show a high positive statistical link between a club’s sporting performance and its market value, but a relevant direct statistical link has also been confirmed between the economic performance of the region and the market value of the club, with respect to its sporting success. However, the analysis also showed that the club of a relatively poor region (from a pan-European point of view) could reach above-average results at the highest European level, and vice versa – a club with a high market value, from an economically highly over-developed region, could lag behind.

Open access
Forest stand biomass of Picea spp.: an additive model that may be related to climate and civilisational changes

Abstract

Since ancient times, climate change has largely determined the fate of human civilisation, which was related mainly to changes in the structure and habitats of forest cover. In the context of current climate change, one must know the capabilities of forests to stabilise the climate by increasing biomass and carbon-depositing abilities. For this purpose, the authors compiled a database of harvest biomass (t/ha) in 900 spruce (Picea spp.) sample plots in the Eurasian area and used the methodology of multivariate regression analysis. The first attempt at modelling changes in the biomass additive component composition has been completed, according to the Trans-Eurasian hydrothermal gradients. It is found that the biomass of all components increases with the increase in the mean January temperature, regardless of mean annual precipitation. In warm zonal belts with increasing precipitation, the biomass of most of the components increases. In the process of transitioning from a warm zone to a cold one, the dependence of all biomass components upon precipitation is levelled, and at a mean January temperature of ˗30°C it becomes a weak negative trend. With an increase in temperature of 1°C in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, there is a general pattern of decrease in all biomass components. With an increase in precipitation of 100 mm in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, most of the components of biomass increase in warm zonal belts, and decrease in cold ones. The development of such models for the main forest-forming species of Eurasia will make it possible to predict changes in the productivity of the forest cover of Eurasia due to climate change.

Open access
Optimal Spatial Allocation of Labour Force and Employment Protection Legislation (EPL)

Abstract

The paper introduces a model of how workers rationally decide to which country within an area of monetary and economic integration they will move for the purposes of living and working. Since Mundell accomplished his pivotal respective analyses, the Optimal Currency Area (OCA) literature has highlighted the importance of the reallocation of the labour force within common currency areas in order to cushion asymmetric shocks. However, several studies have put into question whether such a mobility may be considered adequately effective and efficient within the Euro Zone and, hence, political solutions have been urgently requested. This paper, using the concept of employment protection legislation (EPL), looks at the impact of the different flexibility degrees applied among national labour markets on the international labour movements within the Euro Zone, and it then proposes a reform of such in terms of the degrees of flexibility that could achieve the optimal point.

Open access
Regional diversification of cultural sector potential in Poland

Abstract

The article presents an assessment of the potential of the cultural sector in Poland from a regional perspective. The author analysed statistical data from 2005–2017 on changes in demand for selected cultural products and services. A conclusion was reached using linear sequencing, which aimed to establish a value for a synthetic indicator showing the situation of the cultural sector in the regions. This indicator was calculated on the basis of characteristics referring to cultural infrastructure resources, cultural activities, cultural expenditure and income in the cultural sector. In the obtained list of regions, the highest places were achieved by the Lubelskie, Zachodniopomorskie and Dolnośląskie voivodships. The weakest result was achieved by the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. However, the scores obtained were generally low – none of the regions achieved high scores in all partial values. Considering the relatively small differences between the values of the indicator, it is possible that the obtained picture will change due, among others, to the high dynamics of changes in expenditures being incurred in the cultural sector.

Open access
Selected aspects of water and sewage management in Poland in the context of sustainable urban development

Abstract

Effective water and sewage management is one of the most important enablers of sustainable urban development. In Poland, water and sewage management has been undergoing systematic transformation since the 1990s. This process intensified with Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004. The aim of the work is to analyse and evaluate water and sewage management in cities in Poland in terms of sustainable development. This was made possible by selecting seven variables from which a summative index (SI) was calculated. The analysis revealed a number of positive changes that have occurred in this field. These were mainly: a decrease in water consumption in households and industry, and an increased share of wastewater treated biologically or using enhanced nutrient removal in total wastewater. An increase in SI was found in 98% of the researched cities. The largest improvement in water and sewage management took place in cities of populations below 100,000 and little industry, and in three large cities, namely Warsaw and Szczecin.

Open access
Urban and Rural Public Spaces: Development Issues and Qualitative Assessment

Abstract

This paper presents selected issues related to the observation, assessment and development of urban and rural public spaces. Therefore, its initial part focuses on the specific nature of these spaces, and in particular on their functions and on problems in their development. It also describes features of urban and rural public spaces, which will be a prelude to the issue of qualitative assessment of the subject at hand. The method applied here can be used for the analysis of each urban space selected, thus strengthening the practical nature of this study. While over 80 public spaces have been analysed, the paper itself focuses only on the case studies that demonstrate the specific nature of the analysis that was carried out. The analysis process as a whole is only referred to in the summary.

Open access
Using GIS methods to analyse the spatial distribution and public accessibility of pharmacies in Craiova city, Romania

Abstract

The present study represents a social and geographical analysis of the spatial distribution of pharmacies in Craiova city using GIS methods. This study aims to present the evolution in the pharmacies’ number, location, density and accessibility to the population of Craiova city on the background of an analysis of European and national legislation concerning the pharmaceutical sector. The paper also outlines the uneven distribution of pharmacies in the city by analysing the ratio between the number of pharmacies and the number of people within a district. Distance and time are considered important, especially when using different transport types. Indicators like density of pharmacies, distribution of population density, and population size in districts were taken into account in this study. Although the GIS-based analysis revealed that accessibility of pharmacies in terms of time and distance and the ratio of population size to number of pharmacies were both good and had increased over the years, the study also indicated residential areas with no pharmacy, and therefore an uneven distribution of pharmaceutical services.

Open access
Word Heritage Sites as soft tourism destinations – their impacts on international arrivals and tourism receipts

Abstract

The paper deals with the relationship between the presence of world heritage sites in a country and the volume of international tourist arrivals and international tourism receipts. World heritage sites are unique tourist attractions with enhanced attention paid to their protection, preservation and sustainability. The paper analyses whether the needs of sustainability can be harmonised with the requirements of a profitable and successful tourism sector, by statistical analysis of data about world heritage sites and tourism performance, for 129 countries of the world from 2014 to 2017. The results show that both cultural and natural world heritage sites are generally strong attractions for tourists and can contribute to increased arrivals and receipts. Cultural sites were found to have higher impact on arrivals, while natural heritage sites seemed to have more impact on receipts, which suggest, that visitors of natural world heritage sites are usually higher spenders, than tourists visiting cultural sites. Countries widely differ, however, in this respect by their geographical locations. Countries in Europe and Latin-America & the Caribbean region benefit most from cultural world heritage sites, while African, and North American countries experienced the benefits of natural world heritage sites more. The general level of development measured by per capita GNI also mattered for the less developed areas, but not so much for developed regions that possess a suitable level of infrastructure, health and education, and living standards.

Open access
The effects of Guarana (Paullinia cupana) supplementation on the cognitive performance of young healthy adults – a Systematic Review

Abstract

Objectives

Guarana (Paullinia cupana) from the Sapindaceae family, native to the Amazon basin, is a natural stimulant herb that can be found in popular energy drinks, pharmaceutical shops or local herb shops. With the use of natural health products increasing, guarana has gained a fair amount of popularity in the past years. In this systematic review, we examined the effects of guarana supplementation on cognitive performance. A secondary objective was to compare guarana with caffeine on cognitive performance.

Methods

Searches were made in PubMed using the terms ‘Guarana’ or ‘Paullinia cupana’. Filters focused on Controlled Clinical trials. Inclusion criteria were met by studies using interventions with guarana, while focusing on guarana’s effects on cognition. Participants needed to be young, healthy adults. Studies not published in English or Greek were excluded. The last date of our search was March 7, 2019.

Results

A total of 29 studies were identified and screened. After screening, 17 studies were excluded. The remaining 12 studies were found eligible for data extraction. After reading the full text of the 12 studies, 3 studies were excluded. In the end, 9 studies were found eligible for our systematic review (n = 369 participants). In these studies, guarana showed to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at cognitive tasks. No significant differences were found when comparing guarana with caffeine.

Conclusion

Guarana seems to improve reaction time and accuracy of performance at tasks, but no significant effects were found when compared with caffeine. High quality randomized controlled clinical trials with a low risk of bias are needed to further study the herb.

Open access
Anxiety In A Dental And Maxillofacial Surgery Consulting Room: Does Previous Experience Matter?

Abstract

Objectives

To explore the associations between previous dental visits and dental anxiety among patients presenting at the dental and maxillofacial surgery clinic of Department of Dental and Maxillofacial Surgery, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kebbi, Nigeria.

Materials and methods

This study was a cross-sectional study conducted among 172 patients. Study instrument was a 9-item structured questionnaire, which obtained information about the participants regarding their: demographic profile; previous dental experience; and dental anxiety status in a dental and maxillofacial surgery consulting room. Data collected were analyzed using the SPSS Version 20 Software. Associations between variables were evaluated using Chi-square statistics using a p < 0.05 to determine the level of statistical significance.

Results

Roughly, six-tenth (57.6%) of the participants were males. The observed prevalence of dental anxiety among the participants was 47.7%. A history of pain experience during past dental treatment as well as a history of past dental visit were found to have statistically significant relationships with participants’ dental anxiety status (p-values < 0.05). However, the frequency of previous dental visits, a history of past dental treatment, and a history of use of intraoral injections in the course of past dental treatment were found to have no statistically significant relationship with participants’ status of dental anxiety (p-values > 0.05). Finally, the prevalence of dental anxiety among the groups of female folks with “a history of previous visit to a dentist” and “a history of pain experience in the past dental treatment” were found to be significantly higher than that observed among similar groups among the male folks (p-values < 0.05).

Conclusion

Previous experience of pain plays a major role of influence over dental anxiety experience among patients. Hence, dental practitioners need to pay more attention towards dental anxiety management among patients, especially women.

Open access