The article presents the Individual Autonomous System Navigation (IANS) supporting–rescuer or firemen in terms of navigation. Basic assumptions, which such a system has to fulfill in terms of functionality and accuracy, are presented. The concept of the ISAN system is based on the implementation of inertial navigation system which the only one to permit fully autonomous functioning. Measurement sensors of the navigation system with microprocessor board are placed in the rescuer’s shoe. To limit the escalation of the navigation errors value, which in the case of inertial navigation rises exponentially, a procedure of navigation parameters upgrading at every step of the rescuer is introduced to the proposed system. This procedure guarantees the required accuracy of navigation achievement. The article describes a developed and manufactured demonstrator of the technology and presents main results of its research. The research conducted in a building consisted in walking on the same level several hundred meters in less than 10 minutes. A walking test with a change of walking height was also performed in order to estimate the accuracy of the vertical channel. Results of the demonstrator’s tests let us conclude that the error of navigation is below 1% of the travelled distance and the accuracy is linear in respect to time. The achieved accuracy is fully sufficient for a practical IANS application.
Helicopters play an important role in air-to-ground fire covering and the short-distance air-to-air fights, as well as the anti-tank missions and battlefield force transferring. The detection and survivability of helicopters on a battlefield significantly depends on their infrared emissions level, as well as the methods, equipment and systems used by potential enemy. The automatic detection systems, recognition and identification of flying objects use among other the thermo-detection methods, which rely on detecting the infrared radiation emitted by the tracked object. Furthermore, due to low-altitude and relatively low flight speed, today’s combat assets like missile weapons equipped with infrared guidance systems are one of the most important threats to the helicopters performing combat missions. Especially meaningful in a helicopter aviation is infrared emission by exhaust gases, egressed to the surroundings. Due to high temperature, exhaust gases are a major factor in detectability of a helicopter performing air combat operations. In order to increase the combat effectiveness and survivability of military helicopters, several different types of the infrared suppressor (IRS) have been developed. This paper reviews contemporary developments in this discipline, with particular examples of the infrared signature suppression systems.
The paper presents the manufacturing technology and quality control of samples made of composite materials intended, inter alia, for aircraft elements. The samples are made from carbon fiber reinforced prepreg in a polymer matrix which is commonly used in the aerospace industry. The authors described the dimensional requirements for samples made of composite materials for strength testing, and the main stages of production which have a direct impact on the quality of composite samples. Also presented is the technological process of producing flat carbon composite panels for composite samples, cutting the produced panels with a CNC plotter, cutting the samples on a conventional milling machine, and surface treatment of the samples on a surface grinder. The machining parameters that were experientially found to be optimal for the milling and grinding of carbon samples are specified as well. Finally, the method of quality control of the ready composite samples is described and solutions are presented to improve the production of high-quality samples.
This paper describes results of tests dedicated to studying – in simulated environmental conditions – operation of a battery pack designed for powering unmanned aircraft systems. In particular, the tests concerned determining the electrical parameters of battery packs, with and without radiators, during their operation in changing environmental conditions and resistance to large temperature fluctuations. Amicell, a high density lithium polymer battery manufactured by the Israeli Amit Industries ltd., was selected for testing. The test results present characteristics of the batteries tested in different temperatures and allow for designing and trying out proper battery protections against environmental conditions, with the intention to attain continuous and correct operation. The tests have been carried out in the accredited Environmental Test Laboratory which is part of the Department of Avionics of the Institute of Aviation in Poland.
Existing global models of interaction between the solar wind (SW) and the local interstellar medium (LISM) describe the heliosphere that arises as a result of this interaction. There is a strong motivation to develop a kinetic model using the Particle-in-Cell (PIC) method to describe phenomena which appear in the heliosphere. This is however a long term scientific goal. This paper describes an electrostatic Particle-in-Cell numerical model developed in the Institute of Aviation in Warsaw, which includes mechanical and charge exchange collisions between particles in the probabilistic manner using Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method. This is the first step into developing simulations of the heliosphere incorporating kinetic effects in collisionless plasmas. In this paper we focus only on presenting the work, which have been done on the numerical PIC algorithm.
In this paper, the experimental results of a detonation chamber fed by air from a centrifugal compressor are presented. The detonation chamber was equipped with many different sensors, mostly thermocouples, which were placed in 11 different positions. The distribution of temperature changes along the chamber and radial temperature profile at the outlet are provided. The results here confirm the existence of high mixture stratification. Such mixture stratifications and temperature profiles may be used as an additional chamber wall cooling method. The experiments performed, address key issues regarding the chamber choking problem caused by turbines. The relationship between the turbine performance and detonation chamber are crucial for proper control of turbine jet engine.
Bogusław Dołęga, Grzegorz Kopecki and Andrzej Tomczyk
The article presents key properties of a module intended to estimate non-measurable state variables of an aircraft (a fixed-wing aircraft). Sample calculations are applicable to the MP-02A Czajka light Optionally Piloted Vehicle (OPV). The quality of flight parameter values’ estimation is illustrated by comparing flight parameters of the MP-02A Czajka aircraft recorded during actual flight with estimated values of respective parameters calculated during simulation of selected sensor faults. This experiment allows to evaluate the usefulness of the analytical redundancy mechanism that determines attitude parameters (roll, pitch and heading angles) and navigational variables (airspeed, altitude and geographic coordinates).
The speed of a rotor or rotors of a turbine engine is important information on its operation. Due to the specific conditions, in which the measurement is taken in a turbine engine, which in particular applies to small engines that are becoming increasingly popular in manned and unmanned aviation, the most universal detector is the detector using the phenomenon of eddy currents. This article presents the developed detector system solution. The correct operation of a detector is conditional upon the possibility to detect the presence of a blade in the detection field in a reliable manner, while maintaining the resistance to interference. The developed system is resistant to changes in parameters due to the use of a differential system consisting of two detector coils connected in a bridge circuit, a rectifier circuit with filters acting as a demodulator and a comparator. The system works with a microprocessor performing data processing functions. The executed functional model was tested in a laboratory, which enabled to determine its characteristics in several configurations and to confirm its correct operation.
Rafał Chatys, Anna Stefańska, Krzysztof Piernik and Konrad Stefański
The study investigates the fatigue strength of a component made of a glass composite material with polyester matrix, manufactured using a contact method (I) and by vacuum bagging (II). Modeling was carried out only for composite material II, due to significant spread of the strength of the composite material manufactured by contact lamination I, which means that such a material does not guarantee repeatability of the test results. Estimation of the composite material fatigue strength and residual strength was performed using a mathematical model based on the Markov chain theory. The model assumed that the material failure occurs at certain critical microvolume of the components operating within the plastic range. Observed relationships between the probability values and the distribution parameters for the static strength of the composite components, as well as the load values allow for deriving a fatigue curve equation. Obtained results are presented in the tables.
One of the many elements of the process of qualifying the candidates for military aircraft pilots is the assessment of the correct functioning of their body balance system, responsible, inter alia, for spatial orientation during a flight. That system continuously controls the spatial position of the center of body mass. To measure that value directly is a complex metrological task. That is why an equivalent measure is used in tests of standing posture stability, i.e. the position of a projection of the center of mass on a supporting plane.
Quantitative information determining the characteristics of the body balance system may be obtained in posturographic tests, which include measurement, recording and assessment of the trajectory of a projection of the examined person’s center of body mass.
At the preliminary stage, examined were nineteen candidates for fighter pilots (one woman and 18 men), students of the Polish Air Force Academy in Dęblin.
Based on the conducted measurements of the body mass center position and the stabilographic tests, the correctness of their balance system performance was assessed. The article discusses the examination methodology, presents measurement results and conclusions.