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Evaluation of access to long-term care services for old people ageing in place in Slovenia

Abstract

Theory

The quality of long-term care services has an important effect on the quality of life of their users and their informal carers. By identifying gaps between provision of services and users’ needs we can suggest adjustments of the long-term care services and advance their development.

Method

The data from the first Slovenian national survey of social homecare (SHC) users and their informal carers was utilised. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate factors that affect assessments of five-dimensional concept of access.

Results

On average, affordability was rated the lowest (mean=2.9) and acceptability the highest (4.0), with availability, accessibility and accommodation (mean=3.6) in the middle. Regression analysis explains 15% of variability in affordability, while for other dimensions much less. Caregiver’s needs are the most influential predictor of access, negatively influencing the rating of access (availability B=.127, accommodation B=-.113, acceptability B=-.120, affordability B=-.155). Care recipients’ needs also affect the rating of affordability (B=-.132). Family income negatively influences the rating of availability (B=-.115), accessibility (B=-.076) and affordability (B=-.270). Residents of rural areas rate availability (B=-.070) and affordability (B=-.067) less favourable.

Discussion

This study showed that affordability is rated the least favourable among components of access. Adjustment in private out-of-pocket co-payment mechanism is suggested.

Open access
Future teachers’ attitudes and knowledge regarding the management of the potential students’ life-threatening allergic reactions in Slovenian schools

Abstract

Introduction

Poorly developed teachers’ competences for managing children’s allergies can pose a significant problem for the wellbeing of children in the preschool and school environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes and theoretical understanding of the management of allergic reactions in children among future teachers.

Methods

A total of 572 future teachers participated in the study, 56% of whom were in the 1st year of undergraduate educational programmes, while 44% were in the 4th year. The participants answered the Teachers’ Health Competences Development – Allergy Questionnaire.

Results

The future teachers showed positive attitudes towards learning more about different child health issues. There was an average understanding of managing allergic reactions in children (59.4%; SD=16.1% success), with no statistically significant difference regarding the duration of education, science background or the students’ self-allergy. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in achievement scores between future teachers in different educational programmes (F(3,568)=6.4, p≤.000). A subgroup of future teachers exposed to basic allergy education in the 1st year and tested again in the 4th year showed significantly better knowledge (Mann-Whitney U=83.0; p=.008).

Conclusion

The duration of future education, science background and self-allergy did not influence the level of knowledge regarding the management of allergic reactions in children. A basic educational programme in allergy management had a positive effect on future teachers’ knowledge of managing allergic reactions in children. Our study indicates that all future teachers should be included in specific educational programmes in order to develop adequate health competences.

Open access
Hospital staff’s risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders, especially low back pain

Abstract

Introduction

Health-related absenteeism impacts individuals, companies, and society. Its consequences are reflected in the cost of benefits, substitutes, and reduced productivity. Research shows that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related health problem reported by hospital staff. This study determines the groups at the Ljubljana University Medical Centre that are most susceptible to MSDs, especially low back pain.

Methods

Using data from the Health Data Centre of the Slovenian National Public Health Institute and the medical centre, this cross-sectional study analysed absenteeism among medical centre employees. The correlation between MSD / low-back pain risk factors and incidence was determined using logistic regression. An odds ratio was calculated to determine the probability of MSDs, most especially low back pain via sex, age, occupation, and education.

Results

Sick leave at the medical centre is higher than 5%, exceeding the Slovenian healthcare sector average. MSDs, as the main reason for absence, is significantly more frequent in women, non-medical staff, and employees with a maximum secondary school education. Among the MSDs, low back pain predominates as a reason for absence and is most frequent among nurses, midwives, and employees of 20 to 44.9 years old.

Conclusion

This study offers insight into the health status of medical centre employees. The high percentage of sick leave is mainly due to musculoskeletal disorders, including low back pain. This is an important basis for further monitoring and analysis of sick leave indicators and for planning systematic and continuous workplace health-promoting measures to manage ergonomic risk factors and reduce health-related absenteeism.

Open access
The role of a school nurse in the care of a child with diabetes mellitus type 1 - the perspectives of patients and their parents: Literature review

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this literature review was to explore the views of parents and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus regarding having a school nurse.

Methods

Six databases were selected for the analysis. The research strategy was based on the PICO model. The research participants were children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and/or their parents.

Results

The present review of research papers includes 12 publications. The majority of works deal with the perspectives of children with type 1 diabetes and their parents on various aspects related to the role of a school nurse in the care of a child with type 1 diabetes:

  • the presence of a school nurse;
  • the role of a school nurse in the prevention and treatment of hypoglycaemia, in performing the measurements of blood glucose, and in insulin therapy;
  • the role of a nurse in improving metabolic control of children with type 1 diabetes;
  • a nurse as an educator for children with type 1 diabetes, classmates, teachers, teacher’s assistants, principals, administrators, cafeteria workers, coaches, gym teachers, bus drivers, and school office staff;
  • a nurse as an organiser of the care for children with type 1 diabetes.

Conclusions

According to parents and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, various forms of school nurse support (i.e., checking blood glucose, giving insulin, giving glucagon, treating low and high blood glucose levels, carbohydrate counting) are consistently effective and should have an impact on the condition, improvement of metabolic control, school activity and safety at school.

Open access
What can we learn from each other about undergraduate medical education in general practice/family medicine?

Abstract

Introduction

There is a dearth of published literature on the organisation of family medicine/general practice undergraduate teaching in the former Yugoslavia.

Methods

A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to the addresses of 19 medical schools in the region. Questions covered the structure of Departments of Family Medicine (DFM), organisation of teaching, assessment of students and their involvement in departmental activities.

Results

Thirteen medical schools responded, of which twelve have a formal DFM. Few DFM have full-time staff, with most relying upon external collaborators. Nine of 13 medical schools have family doctors teaching other subjects, covering an average of 2.4 years of the medical curriculum (range: 1-5). The total number of hours dedicated to teaching ranged from 30 - 420 (Md 180). Practice-based teaching prevails, which is conducted both in city and rural practices in over half of the respondent schools. Written exams are conducted at all but two medical schools, with the written grade contributing between 30 and 75 percent (Md=40%) of the total score. Nine medical schools have a formal method of practical skills assessment, five of which use Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. Student participation is actively sought at all but three medical schools, mainly through research.

Conclusion

Most medical schools of the former Yugoslavia recognise the importance of family medicine in undergraduate education, although considerable variations exist in the organisation of teaching. Where DFM do not exist, we hope our study will provide evidence to support their establishment and the employment of more GPs by medical schools.

Open access
General Construction and Classification of Manipulators for Underwater Vehicles

Abstract

The article presents the general construction of an underwater vehicle manipulator along with a discussion of the materials used in their construction. The types of drive systems used by the manipulator have been characterised, distinguishing their advantages and disadvantages. The functions of the manipulator are specified in relation to the activities performed by it. Moreover, the paper discusses the manipulator's degrees of freedom with the specification of the formula for their calculation. The basic types of end effectors are presented as well as an outline of the classification of manipulators in relation to the tasks carried out.

Open access
The Role of the Piechcin Centre in the Development of Specialised Tourism With a View to Diver Preparation for Penetration of the Baltic Sea

Abstract

This work is a preliminary pilot research aiming at defining the role of the Piechcin Diving Centre in the development of specialised tourism. Particular attention was paid to the various elements defining the quality of the services offered. The key aspects and reasons for which respondents visit the centre were also determined. Both the customer’s expectations of the organiser of this form of recreation were analysed, and research was made to help understand whether the time the customers spends at the centre facilitates a positive decision regarding the participation in diving trips in larger bodies of water, with particular consideration of the Baltic Sea. Different forms of cooperation between the centre and regional authorities in terms of promoting the region were also reviewed.

Open access
Studies on the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygenation on the Opsonic Index and Haematological Blood Image in Rabbits

Abstract

Hyperbaric oxygen toxicity studies were conducted on rabbits using the opsonic index determination.The study was conducted on 15 animals that had opsonin index examined prior to hyperbaric oxygen exposure. They were then subjected to an hourly exposure to hyperbaric oxygen with overpressure values of 1.8, 2.4 and 3.1 atm in groups of 5 animals. After the exposure, the opsonium index was re-examined upon the lapse of 1, 2 and 10 days. Parallelly, the morphological image of the blood was examined.There was a statistically significant increase in the index in the first two days after exposure, independent of the value of oxygen overpressure. On the 10th day, the index value approached the initial one.

Open access
Treatment of a Chronic Wound - A Case Report of a Patient Treated at the Centre for Hyperbaric Oxygen and Treatment of Wounds in Bydgoszcz

Abstract

This paper presents a case report of a patient with a diagnosed complication of a sternum wound which was treated using hyperbaric oxygen, emphasizing the truism of the benefits of combined surgical therapy, antibiotic therapy and oxybarotherapy.

Open access
Vascular Complication in Aesthetic Medicine Treated with Hyperbaric Oxygenation

Abstract

The most hazardous adverse reactions following hyaluronic acid injections in aesthetic medicine involve vascular complications, known as the Nicolau Syndrome. This article presents a vascular complication in the area of the upper part of the nasolabial fold following subcutaneous administration of 0.5 ml of hyaluronic acid. At the time of the injection, paling occurred, which was followed by livedo racemosa appearing an hour later. Upon the lapse of a week, an ulceration appeared. It was not until the tenth day after the hyaluronic acid injection that hyaluronidase was administered. After 15 hyperbaric oxygen exposures, the ulcer was completely healed

Open access