Daria Ługowska, Tomasz Ługowski, Olga Krzywińska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz and Paweł Grzelakowski
Diabetes is an “epidemic of the 21st century” and it is estimated that in 2011 6.7% of Poland’s population suffered from diabetes, one quarter of which was unaware of the disease. Such a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus results in an increasing number of physicians being confronted with the problem of qualifying patient with diabetes to partake in amateur sports, including diving. This publication presents the most important information concerning risk assessment, admission of diabetic patients to amateur diving and some proposed protocols of management before and during sport practice.
This article presents the process of modernisation of a car lift in order to adjust it to the function of a hoist for lifting the decompression chamber cover in a breathing simulator used in the Department of Underwater Work Technology of the Naval Academy in Gdynia.
This article discusses issues related to safety during kitesurfing (swimming on a board with a kite). The considerations are based on risk management procedures. These procedures can be described interchangeably as managing your own safety. Risk management allows you to minimize threats without sacrificing your planned sport goals. The authors first describe the procedures related to the identification of threats occurring in this discipline. Teaching and practicing kitesurfing involves overcoming a large number of threats. These threats can have both external and internal character. The next stage is risk analysis, understood as the product of negative events and the probability of their occurrence. Afterwards, we discuss the ways of dealing with the threat in the event of its occurrence. The last stage is the risk control (tracking) - whether new threats have emerged, or the level of risk has remained unchanged. The described methodical impacts can be labelled as education for safety.
Anticholinergic burden in older adults has been correlated with cognitive decline, delirium, dizziness and confusion, falls and hospitalisations. Nevertheless, anticholinergic-acting medications remain commonly prescribed in up to a third of older adults in primary care population. Our aim was to study the anticholinergic burden in older adults in Slovenian ambulatory setting and explore the most commonly involved medications which could be avoided by the physicians.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 30 general practices in Slovenia as part of a larger trial. Data on prescribed medications were collected for randomly chosen adults of over 65 years of age visiting general practice, who were taking at least one regularly prescribed medication. Anticholinergic burden was calculated using Duran’s scale and Drug Burden Index.
Altogether, 622 patients were included, 356 (57.2%) female, average age of 77.2 (±6.2), with an average of 5.6 medications. At least one anticholinergic medication was present in 78 (12.5 %) patients. More than half (N=41, 52.6%) of anticholinergic prescriptions were psychotropic medications. Most common individual medications were diazepam (N=10, 1.6%), quetiapine (N=9, 1.4%) and ranitidine (N=8, 1.3%).
Though the prevalence of anticholinergic medications was low compared to international research, the most commonly registered anticholinergic prescriptions were medications that should be avoided according to guidelines of elderly prescriptions. It would be probably clinically feasible to further decrease the anticholinergic burden of older adults in Slovenian primary care setting by avoiding or replacing these medications with safer alternatives.
Study aimed to assess the burnout prevalence and level of empathic attitude in family medicine doctors (FMDs) and its associations with demographic factors, working conditions and physician health, using the Jefferson Scale of Empathy – Health Professional version (JSE-HP).
Slovenian FMDs (n=316, response rate 56%) completed an online socio-demographic questionnaire, with questions on working conditions, physician health, and the Slovenian versions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and the JSE-HP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used, applying linear regression to calculate associations between demographic variables, factors of empathy and burnout dimensions, P<0.05 was set as a limit of statistical significance.
Of the 316 participants, aged 40±10.2 years, 57 (18%) were men. The FMDs achieved mean scores on the JSE-HP (JSEtot of 112.8±10.2 and on the MBI 27.8±11.6 for EE, 10.8±5.5 for D and 33.5±6.0 for PA. High burnout was reported in one dimension by 24.8% of participants, in two by 17.2%, and by 6% in all three dimensions. Multivariate analysis revealed a higher EE and D and lower PA in specialists as opposed to trainees. Higher EE was also identified in older physicians having longer work experience, working in a rural setting, dealing with more than 40 patients/day and having a chronic illness. The latter was also associated with higher JSEtot. JSEtot was negatively associated with D, while PA was positively associated with JSEtot and Perspective Taking.
The incidence of burnout warns both physicians and decision-makers against too heavy workload, especially in older professionals.
The quality of long-term care services has an important effect on the quality of life of their users and their informal carers. By identifying gaps between provision of services and users’ needs we can suggest adjustments of the long-term care services and advance their development.
The data from the first Slovenian national survey of social homecare (SHC) users and their informal carers was utilised. Linear regression analysis was used to evaluate factors that affect assessments of five-dimensional concept of access.
On average, affordability was rated the lowest (mean=2.9) and acceptability the highest (4.0), with availability, accessibility and accommodation (mean=3.6) in the middle. Regression analysis explains 15% of variability in affordability, while for other dimensions much less. Caregiver’s needs are the most influential predictor of access, negatively influencing the rating of access (availability B=.127, accommodation B=-.113, acceptability B=-.120, affordability B=-.155). Care recipients’ needs also affect the rating of affordability (B=-.132). Family income negatively influences the rating of availability (B=-.115), accessibility (B=-.076) and affordability (B=-.270). Residents of rural areas rate availability (B=-.070) and affordability (B=-.067) less favourable.
This study showed that affordability is rated the least favourable among components of access. Adjustment in private out-of-pocket co-payment mechanism is suggested.
Iztok Devetak, Sonja Posega Devetak and Tina Vesel
Poorly developed teachers’ competences for managing children’s allergies can pose a significant problem for the wellbeing of children in the preschool and school environment. The purpose of this study is to explore the attitudes and theoretical understanding of the management of allergic reactions in children among future teachers.
A total of 572 future teachers participated in the study, 56% of whom were in the 1st year of undergraduate educational programmes, while 44% were in the 4th year. The participants answered the Teachers’ Health Competences Development – Allergy Questionnaire.
The future teachers showed positive attitudes towards learning more about different child health issues. There was an average understanding of managing allergic reactions in children (59.4%; SD=16.1% success), with no statistically significant difference regarding the duration of education, science background or the students’ self-allergy. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in achievement scores between future teachers in different educational programmes (F(3,568)=6.4, p≤.000). A subgroup of future teachers exposed to basic allergy education in the 1st year and tested again in the 4th year showed significantly better knowledge (Mann-WhitneyU=83.0; p=.008).
The duration of future education, science background and self-allergy did not influence the level of knowledge regarding the management of allergic reactions in children. A basic educational programme in allergy management had a positive effect on future teachers’ knowledge of managing allergic reactions in children. Our study indicates that all future teachers should be included in specific educational programmes in order to develop adequate health competences.
Nataša Dernovšček Hafner, Damjana Miklič Milek and Metoda Dodič Fikfak
Health-related absenteeism impacts individuals, companies, and society. Its consequences are reflected in the cost of benefits, substitutes, and reduced productivity. Research shows that musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are the most common work-related health problem reported by hospital staff. This study determines the groups at the Ljubljana University Medical Centre that are most susceptible to MSDs, especially low back pain.
Using data from the Health Data Centre of the Slovenian National Public Health Institute and the medical centre, this cross-sectional study analysed absenteeism among medical centre employees. The correlation between MSD / low-back pain risk factors and incidence was determined using logistic regression. An odds ratio was calculated to determine the probability of MSDs, most especially low back pain via sex, age, occupation, and education.
Sick leave at the medical centre is higher than 5%, exceeding the Slovenian healthcare sector average. MSDs, as the main reason for absence, is significantly more frequent in women, non-medical staff, and employees with a maximum secondary school education. Among the MSDs, low back pain predominates as a reason for absence and is most frequent among nurses, midwives, and employees of 20 to 44.9 years old.
This study offers insight into the health status of medical centre employees. The high percentage of sick leave is mainly due to musculoskeletal disorders, including low back pain. This is an important basis for further monitoring and analysis of sick leave indicators and for planning systematic and continuous workplace health-promoting measures to manage ergonomic risk factors and reduce health-related absenteeism.
The aim of this literature review was to explore the views of parents and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus regarding having a school nurse.
Six databases were selected for the analysis. The research strategy was based on the PICO model. The research participants were children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and/or their parents.
The present review of research papers includes 12 publications. The majority of works deal with the perspectives of children with type 1 diabetes and their parents on various aspects related to the role of a school nurse in the care of a child with type 1 diabetes:
the presence of a school nurse;
the role of a school nurse in the prevention and treatment of hypoglycaemia, in performing the measurements of blood glucose, and in insulin therapy;
the role of a nurse in improving metabolic control of children with type 1 diabetes;
a nurse as an educator for children with type 1 diabetes, classmates, teachers, teacher’s assistants, principals, administrators, cafeteria workers, coaches, gym teachers, bus drivers, and school office staff;
a nurse as an organiser of the care for children with type 1 diabetes.
According to parents and children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, various forms of school nurse support (i.e., checking blood glucose, giving insulin, giving glucagon, treating low and high blood glucose levels, carbohydrate counting) are consistently effective and should have an impact on the condition, improvement of metabolic control, school activity and safety at school.
Irena Zakarija-Grković, Davorka Vrdoljak and Venija Cerovečki
There is a dearth of published literature on the organisation of family medicine/general practice undergraduate teaching in the former Yugoslavia.
A semi-structured questionnaire was sent to the addresses of 19 medical schools in the region. Questions covered the structure of Departments of Family Medicine (DFM), organisation of teaching, assessment of students and their involvement in departmental activities.
Thirteen medical schools responded, of which twelve have a formal DFM. Few DFM have full-time staff, with most relying upon external collaborators. Nine of 13 medical schools have family doctors teaching other subjects, covering an average of 2.4 years of the medical curriculum (range: 1-5). The total number of hours dedicated to teaching ranged from 30 - 420 (Md 180). Practice-based teaching prevails, which is conducted both in city and rural practices in over half of the respondent schools. Written exams are conducted at all but two medical schools, with the written grade contributing between 30 and 75 percent (Md=40%) of the total score. Nine medical schools have a formal method of practical skills assessment, five of which use Objective Structured Clinical Examinations. Student participation is actively sought at all but three medical schools, mainly through research.
Most medical schools of the former Yugoslavia recognise the importance of family medicine in undergraduate education, although considerable variations exist in the organisation of teaching. Where DFM do not exist, we hope our study will provide evidence to support their establishment and the employment of more GPs by medical schools.