Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection seriously affects human health. Stable and reliable animal models of HBV infection bear significance in studying pathogenesis of this health condition and development of intervention measures. HBV exhibits high specificity for hosts, and chimpanzee is long used as sole animal model of HBV infection. However, use of chimpanzees is strictly constrained because of ethical reasons. Many methods were used to establish small-animal models of HBV infection. Tupaia is the only nonprimate animal that can be infected by HBV. Use of HBV-related duck hepatitis virus and marmot hepatitis virus infection model contributed to evaluation of mechanism of HBV replication and HBV treatment methods. In recent years, development of human–mouse chimeric model provided possibility of using common experimental animals to carry out HBV research. These models feature their own advantages and disadvantages and can be complementary in some ways. This study provides an overview of current and commonly used animal models of HBV infection.
Herpes zoster (HZ) is a varicella zoster virus (VZV) that attacks locality of nerves and skin, resulting information of clusters of blisters on the skin connected unilateral facial nerve and accompanying apparent nerve pain. Incidence ranges from 3.2 to 4.2 per 1000 populations per year in the United States. Influence factors of HZ include age, infection history with VZV, vaccination history of varicella vaccine, reduced immunocompetence, and other diseases. Current domestic studies on HZ mainly focus on clinical reports of case treatment. This study reviews advances in foreign epidemiological studies of HZ.
Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) commonly causes nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Mg is a fastidious bacterium that poses difficulty in time-consuming isolation and culture. Lack of specificity for serological tests also hampers clinical research of Mg. With development of molecular biology, polymerase chain reaction tests, which exhibit high sensitivities and specificities, became primary tools for foundational and clinical studies of Mg.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is transmitted mainly through food and water sources. HEV is a major public health problem faced by developing countries. HEV causes large outbreaks of hepatitis E (HE) or acute sporadic infection. HEV can also lead to chronic infection. HEV mainly affects the young, middle-aged people, and pregnant women, who especially display high rates of infection. This study reviews HE while considering its biological characteristics, clinical symptoms, epidemic characteristics, vaccine, and detection methods.
As an important pathogen of respiratory tract infection, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) may not only lead to primary atypical pneumonia but also cause systemic organ conditions. MP causes respiratory tract infection among school-age children and is also an important infectious agent for adult respiratory tract infection. Intensive studies on roles of MP infection on the innate immune system significantly aid development of targeted therapy drugs. Epidemic studies on associated symptoms also help in clinical prevention and diagnosis and show importance to personalized treatment utilizing different drugs for different patients. This study summarizes the abovementioned three points based on MP studies in recent years.
In recent years, owing to abuse of antibiotics, extensive use of antitumor drugs and immunosuppressive agents and other reasons, an increasing number of people suffered from fungal infection. In this situation, researchers proposed new diagnosis methods, such as G test, galactomannan (GM) test, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). G test is simple, quick, and highly sensitive and can detect multiple fungi; however, it cannot distinguish fungal types and may result in false positive and false negative results. GM test is less time consuming and feature highly positive detection rates but can simply be used in inspection of invasive aspergillosis. However, optimal positive critical values of GM test remain controversial. PCR is currently one of the fastest methods but is not formally used in clinical practice because of its lack of standardized operation and evaluation criteria. This study reviews the above three methods with the aim of discovering and summarizing their advantages and disadvantages to facilitate research and development of new diagnosis methods.
Chemokines can be divided into four categories: α, β, γ, and δ. Chemokine α is related to neutrophil chemotaxis. Chemokine β is correlated with adsorption of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils. Chemokine γ is mainly a lymphocyte chemokine. Function of chemokine δ remains unclear. Chemokines α and β are primarily related to occurrence and development of autoimmune thyroid disease. This study reviews chemokines and their receptors that are related to Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Objective: This study summarizes research progress on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and carcinogenesis mechanism, curative effect, and prognosis of oropharyngeal epithelium.
Methods: By using Medline and PubMed database retrieval system and “HPV, oropharyngeal cancer” as keywords, we searched relevant literature from January 1998 to June 2012 and incorporated results into the following criteria: 1) biological characteristics of HPV; 2) carcinogenic mechanism and route of HPV transmission; 3) HPV infection rate in oropharyngeal cancer; 4) HPV infection and prognosis of oropharyngeal cancer; and 5) HPV vaccine. A total of 38 articles were analyzed according to incorporated criteria.
Results: HPV mainly infects oral mucosa through direct mouth–genital contact. Among general populations, oropharyngeal cancer tissues present higher HPV infection rate than oral mucosal epithelium. Polymerase chain reaction-based detection shows the highest sensitivity and is most widely used in HPV detection. High-risk HPV16/18 is a commonly detected type. HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer is an independent subtype, displaying unique molecular biological and clinical features. Tumor tissues rare exhibit P53 mutation. Oropharyngeal cancer patients are sensitive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and display long-term prognosis. Preventive effects of HPV vaccine on oropharyngeal cancer still require elucidation.
Conclusion: HPV infection is an important risk and independent prognostic factor of oropharyngeal cancer.
Most people with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection can partly develop active tuberculosis (TB). Therefore, diagnosis of this condition bears significance in early TB prevention. To date, the main methods for diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) include tuberculin skin test and interferon γ release test. These two methods feature their own advantages and disadvantages. Although new diagnostic markers continually emerge, no uniform diagnostic criteria are available for TB detection. This study summarizes several methods for diagnosis of LTBI and new related markers and their application value in clinical practice.
Infection rate of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in our country remains high. Many patients showed combined HBV infection; the most common blood system disease is non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL)-combined HBV infection. Drugs used in treating lymphoma may induce different degrees of HBV reactivation. Such condition may lead to hepatic failure or death. Currently, scholars pay increasing attention to reactivation of HBV by rituximab and/or chemotherapy for NHL-combined HBV patients. This study summarizes research advances in this topic, with a view of providing background information for further research.