This study attempted to determine the level of psychological well-being among postgraduate students. The study also aimed to assess the relationship between psychological well-being and demographic factors, such as age and field of study. Psychological well-being questionnaires were administered to a sample of 192 Master of Education students. The findings demonstrated that Master of Education students possessed a slightly high level of psychological well-being. Differences were found in students’ psychological well-being across age groups, F (4, 167) = 3.178, p = 0.01, and field of study, F (8, 163) = 2.668, p = 0.01, respectively. According to the results, students in the age group of 41 years and above possessed the highest level of psychological well-being (M = 5, SD = 0.71).
Hyponatremia is commonly seen electrolyte disturbance clinically. It is potentially life-threatening and requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma generally presents with a headache, visual disturbances, and the diagnosis is often delayed because of nonspecific nature of symptoms. Hyponatremia being initial manifestation before other common symptoms of pituitary macroadenoma is rare. We present a case of 55-year-old male with recurrent episodes of hyponatremia who was found to non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma along with panhypopituitarism. He was managed with hormone replacements. Our case highlights the importance of correct diagnosis of hyponatremia, measurement of the thyroid, adrenal and pituitary function in cases of hyponatremia.
Despite the increasingly strict legislation on medicinal products, the „off-label use“ or „use of medicinal product outside the approved summary of product characteristics (SmPC)“ is a weak point of today’s drug regulation and raises many questions about the risk, ethics, and legality of this type of practice. In recent years, through guidance and legal changes in some countries were defined the conditions and responsibilities, but in the most European countries still lack rules for off-label prescribing. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyse different approaches to regulation, adopted by some member states as well as to summarize the efforts in demand of common harmonized approach to solve this problem within the European Union. In the study, we used the available regulatory information in different electronic resources associated with the off-label drug use in selected European countries without limited time range. The results show that decisions taken to regulate the issue have significant differences and specific approach, while none of them is enough satisfactory and comprehensive. In conclusion, it can be claimed that the existing regulatory rules in various countries require significant improvement and update.
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic progressive autoimmune disease characterized by skin and multiorgan involvement with alterations in both the innate and adaptive immunities. The hallmark of the disease is widespread fibrosis engaging the skin and multiple internal organs, as well as the musculoskeletal system. There is mounting evidence that T cells are key players in the pathogenesis of scleroderma. The current review discusses the role of the different T helper (Th) lymphocyte subsets in the processes of inflammation and fibrosis, characteristics for the pathogenesis of the disease. Cytokines produced by Th cell populations have a major effect on endothelial cells and fibroblasts in the context of favoring/inhibiting the vasculopathy and the fibrosis spread. The Th2 pro-fibrotic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 have been shown to induce collagen synthesis by fibroblasts, whereas IFN-γ demonstrates an inhibitory effect. Increased Th17 cells are present in the scleroderma skin infiltrates. The combination of IL-17, IFN-γ and TGF-β levels in CD45RO and CD45RA cells from patients with SSc is useful to distinguish between the limited and the diffuse phenotype of the disease. There are accumulating data for functional and numerical alterations in the Tregs in SSc. High levels of TNF-α which might reduce the suppressive ability of Tregs have been described. According to some studies, the number of Tregs in scleroderma skin biopsies has been decreased against the normal absolute number of Tregs in peripheral blood of the same patients, which suggests suppressed immunomodulatory response. Other studies reported increased frequency of Tregs in peripheral blood of patients with systemic sclerosis and established a correlation with disease activity. The main immunological challenge remains the identification of the trigger of the autoimmune response in SSc, the causes for preferential Th2-type cell responses and the immunological differences between the diffuse and the limited cutaneous form of the disease.
A fraction from crude extract of Galega officinalis has been purified by column chromatography on Sephadex G-25, Sepharose 4B, DEAE-Cellulose and Sephadex G-100. The final purification factor of the fraction is 120. The peak in elution profile after Sephadex G-150 shows a molecular weight of 100-140 kDa. The isolated fraction appears to have 74% polysaccharides and 23% of proteins. No loss of activity of the final fraction is observed after storage for several months at 4°C and in lyophilized condition. The fraction compounds inhibit platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen and thrombin.
Hermetic sealing of the apical area after root end resection is essential to the success of endodontic surgery. To compare microleakage after root end resection of the two bioceramic sealers without retrograde filling - Total Fill BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex, and two materials for retrograde filling-MTA and Biodentine, using the method of penetration of dye - 2% methylene blue. Forty eight extracted single-rooted human teeth were used in this study. The resection was made at 3 mm from the root tip at an angle of 90 degree to the long axis of the tooth. The teeth were divided into 4 groups: 1st group (n = 9) - root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling; 2nd group (n = 8) - root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex without retrograde filling. 3rd group (n = 10) - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with MTA. 4th group (n = 8) - retrograde ultrasonic cavity preparation and filling with Biodentine. The outer surface of the root was covered with two layers of varnish, with the exception of the apical 3 mm and then immersed in 2% methylene blue for 72 h. The degree of penetration of the dye is measured in millimeters. The data was entered and processed with the statistical package IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0. We reject the null hypothesis when p < 0.05. With significantly higher value is the arithmetic mean of the group with the root canal obturation with Total Fill BC Sealer without retrograde filling - 2,01 mm; versus a retrograde filling with MTA - 0,68 mm and Biodentin - 0,51 mm; and no statistically significant difference with the group root canal obturation with MTA Fillapex - 1,76 mm. In the four material microleakage dye was observed, but to varying degrees.
Asthma is one of the most prevalent atopic diseases in childhood. It is characterized by inflammation of conductive airways and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Environmental factors introduced to child in early years of life may have a protective or harmful role in developing atopic diseases. To evaluate the influence of some environmental factors such as cat or dog ownership, smoking of mother or father and environmental pollution on prevalence of wheezing in children. Subjects and methods: This was a cross sectional retrospective study. A questionnaire was designed based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC). Parents of the subjects were asked to fill in the questionnaires. Children’s wheezing association with keeping cats and dogs, smoking mother and father and frequency of truck passing in place of residence was investigated. 545 children were recruited in our study. Prevalence of wheezing was 9%. Keeping cats in first year of life and last year was associated with less wheezing. But the latter association was not statistically significant. Keeping dogs was so scarce in area of our study, so we could not perform a rightful analysis. Frequency of truck passing was significantly higher in those with wheezing. Keeping cats in first year of life was a significant protective factor, whereas residence in an area with frequent truck passing increased wheezing in children. Results of our study can emphasize the need to keep children away from polluted areas. Further studies are needed to investigate whether keeping a pet in household can benefit children regarding all possible concerns and benefits.
The aim of the study is to present the results of a 3-year clinico-epidemiological investigation of caustic injury in adults. The study includes 43 patients with acute corrosive ingestion, hospitalized in the Toxicology Clinic, University Hospital “N. I. Pirogov”, Sofia, Bulgaria, for the period 01.01. 2010-31.12.2012. The methods used include: clinical observation and examination, clinical laboratory, imaging, and psychiatric methods and tests. 43 patients between the ages of 22 and 82 with acute corrosive ingestions have been observed. Eleven were male (25.6%) and 32 female (74.4%). All ingestions were intentional. Alkaline agents were used by all of the patients. The severity of poisonings varied from moderate to extremely severe. Different complications were seen in 82% of the cases - severe bleeding, perforation, fistula or/and stricture formation. Two of the patients have undergone surgical intervention - coloesophagoplastic - and have recovered completely. The motivation in different age groups was also studied. Psychiatric comorbidity occurred in patients as depressive and schizoaffective disorder, as well as existential crises. Acute corrosive ingestions by alkaline agents cause severe pathology. The severity and complex character of the injuries require good coordination between different medical specialists.
C. Τsompos, C. Panoulis, K. Τοutouzas, A. Triantafyllou, G. Ζografos and A. Papalois
This experimental study examined the effect of the antioxidant drug U-74389G on a rat model and particularly in a liver ischemia - reperfusion protocol. The effects of that molecule were studied biochemically using blood mean albumin levels. 40 rats of mean weight 231.875 g were used in the study. Albumin levels were measured at 60th min of reperfusion (groups A and C) and at 120th min of reperfusion (groups B and D). The drug U-74389G was administered only in groups C and D. U-74389G administration significantly decreased the predicted albumin levels by 3.63% ± 0.87% (p = 0.0001). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the predicted albumin levels by 0.72% ± 1.04% (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reperfusion time together significantly decreased the predicted albumin levels by 2.02% ± 0.54% (p = 0.0005). U-74389G administration whether it interacted or not with reperfusion time has significant decreasing short - term effects on albumin levels. It seems that the antioxidant capacity is associated with albumin catabolism.
V. Stoeva, A. Kevorkyan, R. Raycheva, V. Kondeva and Y. Stoilova
The risk of infections in dental practices has been attracting for decades the interest of researchers from all over the world. A serious problem related to the transmission of blood-borne viruses is the thorough removal of organic matter, and mainly blood, from dental instruments when performing manual pre-sterilization decontamination. Application of benzidine test to prove the presence of blood traces on large and small dental instruments prepared for sterilization for the purpose of assessing the quality of the manual pre-sterilization decontamination. A total of 485 benzidine tests had been performed on selected 205 large and 280 small dental instruments visibly contaminated with blood. Of the total of 485 tested samples, blood traces were found in 63 (12.99 ± 1.53%). In the group of large instruments, positive benzidine test was obtained in 7.80% compared to 16.78% in the small instruments with the difference being statistically significant (p = 0.003). All 63 positive samples were additionally processed using ultrasound. Blood traces were found in 8 instruments with all of the positive samples being obtained from the barbed broaches. The manual cleaning does not guarantee decontamination of the dental instruments unlike the ultrasonic cleaning where any blood traces are being completely removed from the large instruments. In terms of the small instruments, there are still blood traces present after the ultrasonic cleaning which requires for it to be combined with a suitable enzyme cleaner, and the barbed broaches, as a requirement, should be used on a disposable basis.