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Case report. Cystic lesions of the maxilla – clinical considerations and differential diagnosis

Abstract

Cystic lesions of the maxilla are benign entities with both odontogenic and non-odontogenic origins. The maxillary cyst is a benign tumor of the bones of the jaw, which has a membrane and contains a fluid, semi-solid or mixed (liquid / semi-gaseous) material. These often lead to deformities in the jaw area. Cases are specific by framing pathological rarity, etiology, pathogenesis and clinical symptoms.

Considering the large entity of cystic formations that can be found in the maxilla region, we selected two patients with cystic formations of the upper jaw, which were part of different pathological etiology categories, with special rarity occurring, evolutionary appearance and difficult to classify in terms of pathognomonic signs.

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Case report. Giant ethmoido-frontal osteoma with intracranial and orbital extension – Case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The most frequent benign nasal tumor is the osteoma. It is commonly asymptomatic and usually an incidental finding and can be caused by multiple factors. The therapeutic approach for symptomatic osteomas is strictly surgical.

CASE REPORT. The authors present a patient with giant ethmoido-frontal osteoma, causing the compression of the ocular globe and the right frontal lobe. Considering the intracranial extension, a combined surgical team consisting of an ENT surgeon and neurosurgeon decided to deal with the case. The tumoral mass was removed with no recurrence after a follow-up of two years.

CONCLUSION. Surgery via external and endoscopic approach aims to completely resect the osteoma with frontal sinus origin and orbital or intracranial extension.

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Literature review. Noninvasive fungal rhinosinusitis

Abstract

Fungus ball (FB) of the paranasal sinuses has a distinctive clinicopathological presentation. The disease occurs more frequently in elderly patients and has a female preponderance. Classically, it involves only one paranasal sinus in more than 90% of the cases, most commonly the maxillary sinus. Imaging characteristics (calcifications and / or erosion of the inner wall of the sinus visible on CT) and histopathological ones (luminal aggregation of fungal hyphae) confirm the diagnosis.

Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) usually occurs in younger, immunocompetent patients, with a history of atopy, including allergic rhinitis and / or asthma, or a long clinical picture of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), refractory to antibiotic treatment. Nasal polyps (NP) are present in almost all patients, while extra-sinusal complications are described only in some of them. Usually, there is involvement of several sinuses, as well as bilateral damage. The definitive diagnosis is confirmed only by examining surgical specimens - the characteristic appearance of eosinophilic mucin is the most reliable indicator of AFRS.

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Original study. Effectiveness of endoscopic posterior nasal neurectomy for the treatment of intractable rhinitis

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Chronic rhinitis is a clinical condition affecting more than 20% of the world population. The standard treatment strategy is medical. Surgical management can be considered in patients with intractable rhinitis. Various surgical techniques have been documented with varying success rates, but none of them is considered as a gold standard. Hence, we are studying the effectiveness of posterior nasal neurectomy (PNN) in patients who have intractable rhinitis, refractory to maximum medical therapy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in the ENT Department, Padmavathy Medical Foundation, Kollam, Kerala, India, from January 2015 to February 2016. Adult patients, in the age group of 20 to 60 years, diagnosed with chronic rhinitis, presenting two or more symptoms of rhinitis, refractory to maximum medical therapy for a period of at least 3 or more years and whose quality of life was significantly affected were enrolled and PNN was done for them.

RESULTS. We observed a statistically significant improvement in subjective symptoms and patient quality of life at the end of 6 months post-operatively.

CONCLUSION. PNN is a safe and less invasive procedure, which can provide a significant relief in symptoms of intractable rhinitis. Fewer complications and better results make it superior over vidian neurectomy.

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Original study. The clinical value of foam posturography in assessing patients with peripheral vestibular dysfunction – our experience

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Computerized dynamic posturography is the most important battery test designed to assess the ability to use visual, vestibular and proprioceptive cues in the maintenance of posture. Foam posturography reduces the availability of proprioceptive inputs, which makes more difficult the balance control.

OBJECTIVE. The objective of the study was to assess the clinical use of foam posturography in evaluating peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We evaluated 41 patients with vestibular disorders and 41 normal patients by using the sensory organization test in eyes opened, eyes closed and mislead vision conditions with and without the foam. We measured several parameters: the position of the center of pressure, the displacement in the center of pressure in anteroposterior and mediolateral planes and Romberg’s ratio on static and foam rubber.

RESULTS. The values of all parameters were significantly higher in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders than in the control group (p<0.05). Also. comparing the Romberg test results, the foam surface used by the patient was larger than the static one.

CONCLUSION. Foam posturography can be a reliable test in assessing patients with peripheral vestibulopathy, being also able to identify the visual and proprioceptive dependence levels.

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Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry as objective tools for the assessment of nasal patency in nasal septal surgery

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Septal deviations are usually diagnosed by a patient’s subjective complaint of nasal stuffiness and a physical examination by the otorhinolaringologist. The decision for surgery is not always based on objective measurements. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry are objective tools for assessment of nasal patency but is still a controversial subject. In our populations, there are no general accepted methods for screening patients for septal surgery.

OBJECTIVE. To analyse the effectiveness of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry in predicting the outcomes of septoplasty and rhinoseptoplasty and their usefulness in preoperative screening of septal deviations.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. 69 patients were included in this prospective study. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry were performed before and one year after surgery for the investigation of nasal obstruction. Several parameters were analysed before and after decongestion of the nasal mucosa. VAS (visual analogue scale) was also included for evaluation of the subjective symptom score pre- and postoperatively. After surgery, a short questionnaire was applied to investigate patients’ postoperative satisfaction.

RESULTS. The mean subjective scores of nasal patency improved significantly after surgery with 77%. Several parameters of acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry were analysed with binary logistic regression, to evaluate the predictive values on the postoperative satisfaction. The preoperative decongested overall MCA (minimal cross-sectional area) on the deviation side, the decongested bilateral MCA and the decongested Flow ratio had significantly the highest impact on the postoperative satisfaction (p<0.001).

CONCLUSION. Acoustic rhinometry and rhinomanometry as objective tools can serve as objective evidence for the efficacy of septoplasty and rhinoseptoplasty. The parameters of rhinomanometry and anterior rhinometry are useful in the preoperative screening for septal deviations and in predicting postoperative satisfaction between different degrees of nasal septal deviations.

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Bilateral sinoliths in the ethmoid sinus – a rare Cone Beam CT finding

Abstract

Sinoliths are calculi found particularly in paranasal sinuses, the rarest location being the ethmoid air cells. There were previously reported only 4 cases of unilateral large ethmoidal sinoliths (ES), this one being the fifth report. We report here the incidental bilateral evidence in a 34-year-old female patient evaluated in Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) of minor ES. The left ES, of 1.6 mm2 sagittal size, occupied the suprabullar cell, in front of the ground lamella and behind the anterior ethmoidal canal. The right ES, of 7.6 mm2, was located behind the ground lamella. The radiodensity of each ES was about 1000 HU, their bone quality being thus assessed. This is the first evidence of bilateral and clinically silent ethmoidal sinoliths. Being small-sized and incidentally found, it seems reasonable to consider that ethmoidal sinoliths could have a higher incidence but they are overlooked due to the lack of clinical manifestations.

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Clinical application of laryngeal electromyography – a point of view

Abstract

In recent years, the clinical importance of laryngeal electromyography (LEMG) has been recognized. This method of investigation proved itself to be a valuable and indispensable tool regarding voice disorder management and requires multidisciplinary approach.

In this article, we focus on the clinical usefulness of LEMG to assess inferior and superior motor neuron integrity by recording action potentials generated by muscle fibers of the larynx in the new field known as neurolaryngology. To facilitate the clinical application of this electrophysiologic test, we present a detailed description of LEMG techniques, which were applied for simultaneous bilateral recordings of the thyroarytenoid, cricothyroid and posterior cricoarytenoid muscles. Also, we analysed and measured the following electrophysiological parameters: 1) insertional activity; 2) spontaneous activity; 3) recruitment; 4) morphology of waveform.

From a practical point of view, in our country, LEMG performance is still not a routine procedure in ENT and Phoniatric Departments. The difficulty of practical use of LEMG in Romania consists in technical limitations and it depends on the physician’s experience regarding the examination technique and also the interpretation of electrophysiological results.

Our current clinical experience shows that the use of LEMG contributes especially to the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of patients with neurolaryngological disorders.

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Cystic fibrosis - general review on sinonasal complications and case report

Abstract

An irreversible disease, cystic fibrosis (CF), is responsible for affecting multiple organ systems containing epithelia. It is well known that the sinonasal disease caused by CF has consequences for the incidence of the lower airway exacerbations, as well as affecting the quality of life of those patients. This review provides an update by evaluating the available literature regarding pathogenesis, management and treatment of cystic fibrosis patients. To gain a better view of the disease and obtain a higher life expectancy, further studies are needed.

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