Elijah Oladimeji Aina, Alex Folami Adisa, Tajudeen Mukaila Adeniyi Olayanju and Salami Olasunkanmi ismaila
The thick vesicant oil liquid contained in the shell of cashew nut, called cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), has been known for its innumerable applications in chemical industries. Performance evaluation of a newly developed CNSL expeller was carried out to determine the effect of moisture content and pressing duration on extraction parameters. The nut shells were grouped as A: 14.00-16.99%, B: 17.00-19.99% and C: 20.00-22.99% (w.b.) moisture content at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes pressing time and combination of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kg of cashew nut shells. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the stastical analysis. The best mass of liquid extracted, best extraction efficiency and best percentage oil recovery occured at pressing duration of 10 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.), while the best machine capacity was at pressing duration of 2 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.). Results showed that the effects of the pressing duration and moisture content on mass of liquid extracted, machine capacity, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery were significant at 0.05. Meanwhile, the effects of the pressing duration and moisture contents were not significant for the feed rate. Increase in the pressing duration at decreasingthe moisture content resulted in the increase in the mass of liquid extracted, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery while increase in pressing duration and moisture content resulted in decrease in machine capacity of the expeller.
Arkadiusz Matysiak, Agnieszka Wójtowicz and Tomasz Oniszczuk
The aim of the research was to determine the effect of extrusion conditions (various moisture content of raw materials and screw rotation speed), as well as the effect of recipe composition on the process efficiency and the energy consumption during treatment of potato and multigrain products. The efficiency of the extrusion process (Q) was determined by the mass of the product obtained at a given time for all prepared raw material mixtures and the process parameters used, while the specific mechanical energy demand was determined using the SME index. The obtained results allow to conclude that the level of raw materials moisture content had a greater impact on the efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion process than the variable screw speed during the treatment. The efficiency of the process increased with the increasing moisture of the tested compositions, while a decrease in the requirements of SME was observed. The use of differentiated raw material compositions also influenced the Q and SME values determined during the tests.
Davidich Natalia, Halina Faletska, Galkin Andrii, Melenchuk Tatyana, Chumachenko Igor and Davidich Yurii
The significance of the criteria for assessing the quality of the urban passenger transport is investigated in the article. The results of the processing of field studies have identified factors that can be used for the assessment of the quality of the projects of urban passenger transport. The method of estimation of indicators of quality for the passengers during the trip is given and the values of weighting coefficients of individual quality indicators for the elements of the trip are determined. The method of determining the complex quality indicator during the performance of the trips in the projects of public transport is developed. It is shown that the trip components influence the quality of passenger trips in the following order: waiting time at the stop, time of the pedestrian part of the trip, travel time, dynamic coefficient of capacity utilization.
Ashfaq U. Rehman, Azizul Hakim, Khalid Khan and Ihsan Ullah Khan
The objectives of the study were to measure the efficiency in trade and transport through China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and to ascertain efficiency in trade and economic development through developed transport infrastructures. The present study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan. The data was collected from the relevant developing sectors and stakeholders through CPEC including investors of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chamber of Commerce and Peshawar Railway Station track employees. Majority of bi-variate analysis through chi-square test result showed that there was a strong and significant association between the project of CPEC and efficiency in trade and transport in terms of economy. Similarly, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport routes through CPEC and smooth transportation of goods and services. Furthermore, a strong and significant association was found between CPEC project and improvement in travelling potential. Similarly, a significant association was found between development in transport infrastructure and fastness and reliability in business travelling. In the same way, a significant association was found between CPEC and increase in the geographical size of the labour market. As in the chain, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport infrastructures through CPEC and increase in labour force productivity along with an increase in the range of choice of individual and firms. This could come true that CPEC as a project would ensure smooth efficiency transportation of trade goods and services in terms of reducing time distance and cost. CPEC as a project should not be only limited to economic activities, rather it should contribute to the overall socio-economic development of the region.
For new railway bridges with short spans (L ≤ 35.00 m) superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete are recommended or used, which can ensure the requirements of strength and stiffness in particular, regardless of velocity. They are built relatively easily compared to reinforced concrete structures or steel structures, they have high durability if designed, built and maintained correctly and don’t have high sensitivity to fatigue degradation in service. They are also used for road bridges when it is desired to achieve a reduced construction height.
In all the design prescriptions used so far for structures with steel beams embedded in concrete, the calculation is a simplified one, made on a single insulated longitudinal beam of the deck, if certain conditions related to the geometry of the structure are met (obliquity, curvature). Simplifications are also made regarding the state of deformation of the decks made in this constructive solution by introducing an effective moment of inertia in the displacement calculation, as an average of the inertia moments of the cross section considered to be cracked and respectively un-cracked.
The article aims to validate steel and concrete elasto-plastic models, based on an experiment from the technical literature, necessary for complex analyses of the percentage of concrete involved in the stiffness of the cross-sections, in case of bridges with steel beams embedded in concrete.
The rutting and cracking of pavements has become very common problem in India. Also the quantity of plastic waste has significantly increased in the recent year due to industrialization and population growth. Improper disposal of these plastic wastes has caused various environmental problems, hence the alternative use of waste plastic in bituminous concrete for road construction has been encouraged by the community. In the present study the Indirect Tensile Strength Test has been carried out on Marshall Samples confirming to ASTM D6931-12. Three different processes (dry process, wet process and combined process) of mixing of waste plastic were used during experimentation. It was found that the indirect tensile strength (ITS) and tensile strength ratio (TSR) of sample significantly increase up to 8%, 6% and 12% for dry process, wet process and combined process respectively for LDPE and HDPE type of waste plastic.
The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using slow-release fertilizers under intensive vegetable cultivation. To achieve the set research objective, a field experiment was set up in 2017, where slow-release fertilizer (NPK (%) 20-10-10+4MgO) was applied. The experiment comprised three levels of fertilization with the use of slow-release fertilizers, the control without fertilization, and the control fertilized with conventional fertilizers. The slow-release fertilizer was applied directly under each plant and in rows – approximately 8 cm below the root level. The designed systems were evaluated based on the size of commercial yield, productivity index, agronomic efficiency index, removal efficiency index, and physiological efficiency index. The results obtained in the field experiment indicate that the highest plant yield (54.22 Mg of commercial yield∙ha−1) was obtained at the highest dose of slow-release fertilizers (600 kg∙ha−1 applied in rows approximately 8 cm below the root level). In the case of direct fertilization, in the treatment with the highest dose of slow-release fertilizer, a reduction in yield was observed. The best results, in terms of equalizing the mass of individual roots, were obtained under conventional fertilization. The most favorable value of the productivity index was obtained in the variant where 400 kg∙ha−1 slow-release fertilizer was applied directly, while in the case of row application the best results were obtained at the dose of 600 kg∙ha−1. Celeriac fertilization with slow-release fertilizers under root may result in producing a yield of bigger differences in root mass, compared to conventional fertilization system.
Krzysztof Lejman, Zygmunt Owsiak, Krzysztof Pieczarka and Tomasz Sekutowski
The objective of the paper was to determine the impact of the shearing speed and cultivator tines flexibility on the vertical forces value. The study was carried out in field conditions in sandy clay soil and the average moisture of 11.2%. The vertical forces acting on four “s” tines with flexibility of 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m∙kN−1 were measured. Tines were ended with a cultivator point with the curvature radius of 0.17 m. Measurements were made for four shearing speeds (1.0; 1.7; 2.4 and 3.0 m·s−1) and the shearing depth of 11 cm. A stand for measurement of forces acting on soil shearing farm tools in field conditions was used. It was concluded that the shearing speed caused a linear increase of the vertical force but the growth gradient does not depend on the tines flexibility. It was also concluded that the increase in flexibility causes an initial increase and then decrease of the vertical force, which was described with the second degree parabola equation. Flexibilities, at which extremes of courses occur, grow along with the reduction of the shearing speed.
The article presents the results of two-year studies on the influence of the method of sowing and the level of nitrogen application on the yield of seeds of Silphium perfoliatum L. − a new fodder crop for the conditions of Belarus. Silphium is precious for the nutritive value of green mass. According to the literature sources, dry matter contains 16-28% of protein, more than 60% of nitrogen-free extractives, 13-23% of sugars, high content of mineral substances, a small amount of fiber, adequate calcium and phosphorus, carotene, vitamin C. Mineral composition of Silphium contains 17.6% of dry matter, including 152.3 mg·kg−1 of ash. Macro elements: calcium – 18.1, phosphorus − 2.55, manganese – 4.48, potassium – 24.03, sodium – 0.40, sulphur – 0.40 mg· kg−1 of mg· kg−1 of dry matter. The mass of 1000 seeds was from 23.7 to 25.5 g. The seed germination was good and varied from 75% to 84%. It has been established that the best way to sow the Silphium is planting seedlings according to the 70x30 scheme. This option ensured the yield of seeds of 3.6 and 3.7 c/ha. The applying of increased doses of nitrogen fertilizers N90 and N120 and sowing seeds ensured the yield of seeds ranging from 3,6 to 3,9 c·ha−1.
Aleksander Cherenkov, Taras Hutsol, Igor Garasymchuk, Jurii Pancyr, Dmytro Terenov and Vitalii Dubyna
Electromagnetic energy can alter metabolic and biosynthetic processes and under certain parameters of pulsed EMF it can change pulse repetition frequency, operation cycle, power, exposure, as well as it can slow down and inhibit cell growth. MW irradiation range of RNA and DNA – containing virus reduces their infectivity. Inhibition of bacterial cultures growth, changes in phagocytic activity of protein biosynthesis, ultrastructural changes in the cells when exposed to EMF EHF. It was found in experiments with micro-organisms that biological effects of EMF on microorganisms wore a resonant character. One of the basic mechanisms of inhibitory action of EHF radiation on harmful microorganisms is the role of membranes in biological reactions of microorganisms on the EMR.